This chapter is chiefly devoted to describing the essential nature and glories of Sri Nityananda Prabhu. Lord Sri Krsna is the absolute Personality of Godhead, and His first expansion in a form for pastimes is Sri Balarama.
Beyond the limitation of this material world is the spiritual sky, paravyoma, which has many spiritual planets, the supreme of which is called Krsnaloka. Krsnaloka, the abode of Krsna, has three divisions, which are known as Dvaraka, Mathura and Gokula. In that abode the Personality of Godhead expands Himself into four plenary portions--Krsna, Balarama, Pradyumna (the transcendental Cupid) and Aniruddha. They are known as the original quadruple forms.
In Krsnaloka is a transcendental place known as Svetadvipa or Vrndavana. Below Krsnaloka in the spiritual sky are the Vaikuntha planets. On each Vaikuntha planet a four-handed Narayana, expanded from the first quadruple manifestation, is present. The Personality of Godhead known as Sri Balarama in Krsnaloka is the original Sankarsana (attracting Deity), and from this Sankarsana expands another Sankarsana, called Maha-sankarsana, who resides in one of the Vaikuntha planets. By His internal potency, Maha-sankarsana maintains the transcendental existence of all the planets in the spiritual sky, where all the living beings are eternally liberated souls. The influence of the material energy is conspicuous there by its absence. On those planets the second quadruple manifestation is present.
Outside of the Vaikuntha planets is the impersonal manifestation of Sri Krsna, which is known as the Brahmaloka. On the other side of the Brahmaloka is the spiritual karana-samudra, or Causal Ocean. The material energy exists on the other side of the Causal Ocean, without touching it. In the Causal Ocean is Maha-Visnu, the original purusa expansion from Sankarsana. This Maha-Visnu places His glance over the material energy, and by a reflection of His transcendental body He amalgamates Himself within the material elements.
As the source of the material elements, the material energy is known as pradhana, and as the source of the manifestations of the material energy it is known as maya. But material nature is inert in that she has no independent power to do anything. She is empowered to make the cosmic manifestation by the glance of Maha-Visnu. Therefore the material energy is not the original cause of the material manifestation. Rather, the transcendental glance of Maha-Visnu over material nature produces that cosmic manifestation.
Maha-Visnu again enters every universe as the reservoir of all living entities, Garbhodakasayi Visnu. From Garbhodakasayi Visnu expands Ksirodakasayi Visnu, the Supersoul of every living entity. Garbhodakasayi Visnu also has His own Vaikuntha planet in every universe, where He lives as the Supersoul or supreme controller of the universe. Garbhodakasayi Visnu reclines in the midst of the watery portion of the universe and generates the first living creature of the universe, Brahma. The imaginary universal form is a partial manifestation of Garbhodakasayi Visnu.
In the Vaikuntha planet in every universe is an ocean of milk, and within that ocean is an island called Svetadvipa, where Lord Visnu lives. Therefore this chapter describes two Svetadvipas--one in the abode of Krsna and the other in the ocean of milk in every universe. The Svetadvipa in the abode of Krsna is identical with Vrndavana-dhama, which is the place where Krsna appears Himself to display His loving pastimes. In the Svetadvipa within every universe is a Sesa form of Godhead who serves Visnu by assuming the form of His umbrella, slippers, couch, pillows, garments, residence, sacred thread, throne and so on.
Lord Baladeva in Krsnaloka is Nityananda Prabhu. Therefore Nityananda Prabhu is the original Sankarsana, and Maha-sankarsana and His expansions as the purusas in the universes are plenary expansions of Nityananda Prabhu.
In this chapter the author has described the history of his leaving home for a personal pilgrimage to Vrndavana and his achieving all success there. In this description it is revealed that the author's original paternal home and birthplace were in the district of Katwa, in the village of Jhamatapura, which is near Naihati. Krsnadasa Kaviraja's brother invited Sri Minaketana Ramadasa, a great devotee of Lord Nityananda, to his home, but a priest named Gunarnava Misra did not receive him well, and Krsnadasa Kaviraja Gosvami's brother, not recognizing the glories of Lord Nityananda, also took sides with the priest. Therefore Ramadasa became sorry, broke his flute and went away. This was a great disaster for the brother of Krsnadasa Kaviraja Gosvami. But on that very night Lord Nityananda Prabhu Himself graced Krsnadasa Kaviraja Gosvami in a dream and ordered him to leave on the next day for Vrndavana.
vande--let me offer my obeisances; ananta--unlimited; adbhuta--and wonderful; aisvaryam--whose opulence; sri-nityanandam--unto Lord Nityananda; isvaram--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; yasya--whose; icchaya--by the will; tat-svarupam--His identity; ajnena--by the ignorant; api--even; nirupyate--can be ascertained.
Let me offer my obeisances to Lord Sri Nityananda, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, whose opulence is wonderful and unlimited. By His will, even a fool can understand His identity.
jaya jaya--all glories; sri-caitanya--to Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; jaya nityananda--all glories to Lord Nityananda; jaya advaita-candra--all glories to Advaita Acarya; jaya gaura-bhakta-vrnda--all glories to the devotees of Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu.
All glories to Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. All glories to Lord Nityananda. All glories to Advaita Acarya. And all glories to all the devotees of Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu.
ei sat-sloke kahila krsna-caitanya-mahima
panca-sloke kahi nityananda-tattva-sima
ei--this; sat-sloke--in six verses; kahila--described; krsna-caitanya-mahima--the glories of Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; panca-sloke--in five verses; kahi--let me explain; nityananda--of Lord Nityananda; tattva--of the truth; sima--the limitation.
I have described the glory of Sri Krsna Caitanya in six verses. Now, in five verses, I shall describe the glory of Lord Nityananda.
sarva-avatari--the source of all incarnations; krsna--Lord Krsna; svayam--personally; bhagavan--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; tanhara--His; dvitiya--second; deha--expansion of the body; sri-balarama--Lord Balarama.
The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Krsna, is the fountainhead of all incarnations. Lord Balarama is His second body.
Lord Sri Krsna, the absolute Personality of Godhead, is the primeval Lord, the original form of Godhead, and His first expansion is Sri Balarama. The Personality of Godhead can expand Himself in innumerable forms. The forms that have unlimited potency are called svamsa, and forms that have limited potencies (the living entities) are called vibhinnamsa.
eka-i svarupa donhe, bhinna-matra kaya
adya kaya-vyuha, krsna-lilara sahaya
eka-i--one; svarupa--identity; donhe--both of Them; bhinna-matra kaya--only two different bodies; adya--original; kaya-vyuha--quadruple expansions; krsna-lilara--in the pastimes of Lord Krsna; sahaya--assistance.
They are both one and the same identity. They differ only in form. He is the first bodily expansion of Krsna, and He assists in Lord Krsna's transcendental pastimes.
Balarama is a svamsa expansion of the Lord, and therefore there is no difference in potency between Krsna and Balarama. The only difference is in Their bodily structure. As the first expansion of Godhead, Balarama is the chief Deity among the first quadruple forms, and He is the foremost assistant of Sri Krsna in His transcendental activities.
sei krsna----navadvipe sri-caitanya-candra
sei balarama----sange sri-nityananda
sei krsna--that original Krsna; navadvipe--at Navadvipa; sri-caitanya-candra--Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; sei balarama--that Lord Balarama; sange--with Him; sri-nityananda--Lord Nityananda.
That original Lord Krsna appeared in Navadvipa as Lord Caitanya, and Balarama appeared with Him as Lord Nityananda.
garbhoda-sayi ca payobdhi-sayi
sesas ca yasyamsa-kalah sa nitya-
nandakhya-ramah saranam mamastu
sankarsanah--Maha-sankarsana in the spiritual sky; karana-toya-sayi--Karanodakasayi Visnu, who lies in the Causal Ocean; garbha-uda-sayi--Garbhodakasayi Visnu, who lies in the Garbhodaka Ocean of the universe; ca--and; payah-abdhi-sayi--Ksirodakasayi Visnu, who lies in the ocean of milk; sesah--Sesa Naga, the couch of Visnu; ca--and; yasya--whose; amsa--plenary portions; kalah--and parts of the plenary portions; sah--He; nityananda-akhya--known as Lord Nityananda; ramah--Lord Balarama; saranam--shelter; mama--my; astu--let there be.
May Sri Nityananda Rama be the object of my constant remembrance. Sankarsana, Sesa Naga and the Visnus who lie on the Karana Ocean, Garbha Ocean and ocean of milk are His plenary portions and the portions of His plenary portions.
Sri Svarupa Damodara Gosvami has recorded this verse in his diary to offer his respectful obeisances to Lord Nityananda Prabhu. This verse also appears as the seventh of the first fourteen verses of Sri Caitanya-caritamrta.
sri-balarama gosani mula-sankarsana
panca-rupa dhari' karena krsnera sevana
sri-balarama--Balarama; gosani--the Lord; mula-sankarsana--the original Sankarsana; panca-rupa dhari'--accepting five bodies; karena--does; krsnera--of Lord Krsna; sevana--service.
Lord Balarama is the original Sankarsana. He assumes five other forms to serve Lord Krsna.
apane karena krsna-lilara sahaya
srsti-lila-karya kare dhari' cari kaya
apane--personally; karena--performs; krsna-lilara sahaya--assistance in the pastimes of Lord Krsna; srsti-lila--of the pastimes of creation; karya--the work; kare--does; dhari'--accepting; cari kaya--four bodies.
He Himself helps in the pastimes of Lord Krsna, and He does the work of creation in four other forms.
srsty-adika seva,----tanra ajnara palana
'sesa'-rupe kare krsnera vividha sevana
srsti-adika seva--service in the matter of creation; tanra--His; ajnara--of the order; palana--execution; sesa-rupe--the form of Lord Sesa; kare--does; krsnera--of Lord Krsna; vividha sevana--varieties of service.
He executes the orders of Lord Krsna in the work of creation, and in the form of Lord Sesa He serves Krsna in various ways.
According to expert opinion, Balarama, as the chief of the original quadruple forms, is also the original Sankarsana. Balarama, the first expansion of Krsna, expands Himself in five forms: (1) Maha-sankarsana, (2) Karanabdhisayi, (3) Garbhodakasayi, (4) Ksirodakasayi, and (5) Sesa. These five plenary portions are responsible for both the spiritual and material cosmic manifestations. In these five forms Lord Balarama assists Lord Krsna in His activities. The first four of these forms are responsible for the cosmic manifestations, whereas Sesa is responsible for personal service to the Lord. Sesa is called Ananta, or unlimited, because He assists the Personality of Godhead in His unlimited expansions by performing an unlimited variety of services. Sri Balarama is the servitor Godhead who serves Lord Krsna in all affairs of existence and knowledge. Lord Nityananda Prabhu, who is the same servitor Godhead, Balarama, performs the same service to Lord Gauranga by constant association.
sarva-rupe asvadaye krsna-sevananda
sei balarama----gaura-sange nityananda
sarva-rupe--in all these forms; asvadaye--tastes; krsna-seva-ananda--the transcendental bliss of serving Krsna; sei balarama--that Lord Balarama; gaura-sange--with Gaurasundara; nityananda--Lord Nityananda.
In all the forms He tastes the transcendental bliss of serving Krsna. That same Balarama is Lord Nityananda, the companion of Lord Gaurasundara.
saptama slokera artha kari cari-sloke
yate nityananda-tattva jane sarva-loke
saptama slokera--of the seventh verse; artha--the meaning; kari--I do; cari-sloke--in four verses; yate--in which; nityananda-tattva--the truth of Lord Nityananda; jane--one knows; sarva-loke--all over the world.
I have explained this seventh verse in four subsequent verses. By these verses all the world can know the truth about Lord Nityananda.
rupam yasyodbhati sankarsanakhyam
tam sri-nityananda-ramam prapadye
maya-atite--beyond the material creation; vyapi--all-expanding; vaikuntha-loke--in Vaikunthaloka, the spiritual world; purna-aisvarye--endowed with full opulence; sri-catuh-vyuha-madhye--in the quadruple expansions (Vasudeva, Sankarsana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha); rupam--form; yasya--whose; udbhati--appears; sankarsana-akhyam--known as Sankarsana; tam--to Him; sri-nityananda-ramam--to Lord Balarama in the form of Lord Nityananda; prapadye--I surrender.
I surrender unto the lotus feet of Sri Nityananda Rama, who is known as Sankarsana in the midst of the catur-vyuha [consisting of Vasudeva, Sankarsana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha]. He possesses full opulences and resides in Vaikunthaloka, far beyond the material creation.
This is a verse from Sri Svarupa Damodara Gosvami's diary. It appears as the eighth of the first fourteen verses of Sri Caitanya-caritamrta.
prakrtira para 'paravyoma'-name dhama
krsna-vigraha yaiche vibhuty-adi-gunavan
prakrtira--the material nature; para--beyond; para-vyoma--the spiritual sky; name--in name; dhama--the place; krsna-vigraha--the form of Lord Krsna; yaiche--just as; vibhuti-adi--like the six opulences; guna-van--full with transcendental attributes.
Beyond the material nature lies the realm known as paravyoma, the spiritual sky. Like Lord Krsna Himself, it possesses all transcendental attributes, such as the six opulences.
According to Sankhya philosophy, the material cosmos is composed of twenty-four elements: the five gross material elements, the three subtle material elements, the five knowledge-acquiring senses, the five active senses, the five objects of sense pleasure, and the mahat-tattva (the total material energy). Empiric philosophers, unable to go beyond these elements, speculate that anything beyond them must be avyakta, or inexplicable. But the world beyond the twenty-four elements is not inexplicable, for it is explained in the Bhagavad-gita as the eternal (sanatana) nature. Beyond the manifested and unmanifested existence of material nature (vyaktavyakta) is the sanatana nature, which is called the paravyoma, or the spiritual sky. Since that nature is spiritual in quality, there are no qualitative differences there; everything there is spiritual, everything is good, and everything possesses the spiritual form of Sri Krsna Himself. That spiritual sky is the manifested internal potency of Sri Krsna; it is distinct from the material sky manifested by His external potency.
The all-pervading Brahman, the impersonal glowing ray of Sri Krsna, exists in the spiritual world with the Vaikuntha planets. We can get some idea of that spiritual sky by a comparison to the material sky, for the rays of the sun in the material sky can be compared to the brahmajyoti, the glowing rays of the Personality of Godhead. In the brahmajyoti there are unlimited Vaikuntha planets, which are spiritual and therefore self-luminous, with a glow many times greater than that of the sun. The Personality of Godhead Sri Krsna, His innumerable plenary portions and the portions of His plenary portions dominate each Vaikuntha planet. In the highest region of the spiritual sky is the planet called Krsnaloka, which has three divisions, namely Dvaraka, Mathura and Goloka.
To a gross materialist this kingdom of God, Vaikuntha, is certainly a mystery. But to an ignorant man everything is a mystery for want of sufficient knowledge. The kingdom of God is not a myth. Even the material planets, which float over our heads in the millions and billions, are still a mystery to the ignorant. Material scientists are now attempting to penetrate this mystery, and a day may come when the people of this earth will be able to travel in outer space and see the variegatedness of these millions of planets with their own eyes. In every planet there is as much material variegatedness as we find in our own planet.
This planet earth is but an insignificant spot in the cosmic structure. Yet foolish men, puffed up by a false sense of scientific advancement, have concentrated their energy in a pursuit of so-called economic development on this planet, not knowing of the variegated economic facilities available on other planets. According to modern astronomy, the gravity of the moon is different from that of earth. Therefore one who goes to the moon will be able to pick up large weights and jump vast distances. In the Ramayana, Hanuman is described as being able to lift huge weights as heavy as hills and jump over the ocean. Modern astronomy has confirmed that this is indeed possible.
The disease of the modern civilized man is his disbelief of everything in the revealed scriptures. Faithless nonbelievers cannot make progress in spiritual realization, for they cannot understand the spiritual potency. The small fruit of a banyan contains hundreds of seeds, and in each seed is the potency to produce another banyan tree with the potency to produce millions more of such fruits. This law of nature is visible before us, although how it works is beyond our understanding. This is but an insignificant example of the potency of Godhead; there are many similar phenomena that no scientist can explain.
Everything, in fact, is inconceivable, for the truth is revealed only to the proper persons. Although there are varieties of personalities, from Brahma down to the insignificant ant, all of whom are living beings, their development of knowledge is different. Therefore we have to gather knowledge from the right source. Indeed, in reality we can get knowledge only from the Vedic sources. The four Vedas, with their supplementary Puranas, the Mahabharata, the Ramayana and their corollaries, which are known as smrtis, are all authorized sources of knowledge. If we are at all to gather knowledge, we must gather it from these sources without hesitation.
Revealed knowledge may in the beginning be unbelievable because of our paradoxical desire to verify everything with our tiny brains, but the speculative means of attaining knowledge is always imperfect. The perfect knowledge propounded in the revealed scriptures is confirmed by the great acaryas, who have left ample commentations upon them; none of these acaryas has disbelieved in the sastras. One who disbelieves in the sastras is an atheist, and we should not consult an atheist, however great he may be. A staunch believer in the sastras, with all their diversities, is the right person from whom to gather real knowledge. Such knowledge may seem inconceivable in the beginning, but when put forward by the proper authority its meaning is revealed, and then one no longer has any doubts about it.
sarva-ga--all-pervading; ananta--unlimited; vibhu--greatest; vaikuntha-adi dhama--all the places known as Vaikunthaloka; krsna--of Lord Krsna; krsna-avatarera--of the incarnations of Lord Krsna; tahani--there; visrama--the residence.
That Vaikuntha region is all-pervading, infinite and supreme. It is the residence of Lord Krsna and His incarnations.
tahara--of all of them; upari-bhage--on the top; krsna-loka-khyati--the planet known as Krsnaloka; dvaraka-mathura-gokula--the three places known as Dvaraka, Mathura and Vrndavana; tri-vidhatve--in three departments; sthiti--situated.
In the highest region of that spiritual sky is the spiritual planet called Krsnaloka. It has three divisions--Dvaraka, Mathura and Gokula.
sri-goloka, svetadvipa, vrndavana nama
sarva-upari--above all of them; sri-gokula--the place known as Gokula; vraja-loka-dhama--the place of Vraja; sri-goloka--the place named Goloka; sveta-dvipa--the white island; vrndavana nama--also named Vrndavana.
Sri Gokula, the highest of all, is also called Vraja, Goloka, Svetadvipa and Vrndavana.
sarva-ga--all-pervading; ananta--unlimited; vibhu--the greatest; krsna-tanu-sama--exactly like the transcendental body of Krsna; upari-adhah--up and down; vyapiyache--expanded; nahika--there is no; niyama--regulation.
Like the transcendental body of Lord Krsna, Gokula is all-pervading, infinite and supreme. It expands both above and below, without any restriction.
Srila Jiva Gosvami, the great authority and philosopher in the line of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, has discussed the abode of Krsna in his Krsna-sandarbha. In the Bhagavad-gita the Lord refers to "My abode." Srila Jiva Gosvami, examining the nature of Krsna's abode, refers to the Skanda Purana, which states:
ya yatha bhuvi vartante
puryo bhagavatah priyah
tas tatha santi vaikunthe
"The abodes of Godhead in the material world, such as Dvaraka, Mathura and Goloka, are facsimiles representing the abodes of Godhead in the kingdom of God, Vaikuntha-dhama."
The unlimited spiritual atmosphere of that Vaikuntha-dhama is far above and beyond the material cosmos. This is confirmed in the Svayambhuva-tantra in a discussion between Lord Siva and Parvati regarding the effect of chanting the mantra of fourteen syllables. There it is stated:
vaikuntham vyapakam smaret
adhah samyam gunanam ca
"While chanting the mantra, one should always remember the spiritual world, which is very extensive and full of desire trees that can yield anything one desires. Below that Vaikuntha region is the potential material energy, which causes the material manifestation."
The places of the pastimes of Lord Krsna, such as Dvaraka, Mathura and Vrndavana, eternally and independently exist in Krsnaloka. They are the actual abode of Lord Krsna, and there is no doubt that they are situated above the material cosmic manifestation.
The abode known as Vrndavana or Gokula is also known as Goloka. The Brahma-samhita states that Gokula, the highest region of the kingdom of God, resembles a lotus flower with thousands of petals. The outer portion of that lotuslike planet is a square place known as Svetadvipa. In the inner portion of Gokula there is an elaborate arrangement for Sri Krsna's residence with His eternal associates such as Nanda and Yasoda. That transcendental abode exists by the energy of Sri Baladeva, who is the original whole of Sesa, or Ananta. The tantras also confirm this description by stating that the abode of Sri Anantadeva, the plenary portion of Baladeva, is called the kingdom of God. Vrndavana-dhama is the innermost abode within the quadrangular realm of Svetadvipa, which lies outside of the boundary of Gokula Vrndavana.
According to Jiva Gosvami, Vaikuntha is also called Brahmaloka. The Narada-pancaratra, in a statement concerning the mystery of Vijaya, describes:
tat sarvopari goloke
tatra lokopari svayam
"The predominator of the gopis, Govinda, the principal Deity of Gokula, always enjoys Himself in a place called Goloka in the topmost part of the spiritual sky."
From the authoritative evidence cited by Jiva Gosvami we may conclude that Krsnaloka is the supreme planet in the spiritual sky, which is far beyond the material cosmos. For the enjoyment of transcendental variety, the pastimes of Krsna there have three divisions, and these pastimes are performed in the three abodes Dvaraka, Mathura and Gokula. When Krsna descends to this universe, He enjoys the pastimes in places of the same name. These places on earth are nondifferent from those original abodes, for they are facsimiles of those original holy places in the transcendental world. They are as good as Sri Krsna Himself and are equally worshipable. Lord Caitanya declared that Lord Krsna, who presents Himself as the son of the King of Vraja, is worshipable, and Vrndavana-dhama is equally worshipable.
brahmande prakasa tara krsnera icchaya
eka-i svarupa tara, nahi dui kaya
brahmande--within the material world; prakasa--manifestation; tara--of it; krsnera icchaya--by the supreme will of Lord Krsna; eka-i--it is the same; svarupa--identity; tara--of it; nahi--not; dui--two; kaya--bodies.
That abode is manifested within the material world by the will of Lord Krsna. It is identical to that original Gokula; they are not two different bodies.
The above-mentioned dhamas are movable, by the omnipotent will of Lord Krsna. When Sri Krsna appears on the face of the earth, He can also make His dhamas appear, without changing their original structure. One should not discriminate between the dhamas on the earth and those in the spiritual sky, thinking those on earth to be material and the original abodes to be spiritual. All of them are spiritual. Only for us, who cannot experience anything beyond matter in our present conditioned state, do the dhamas and the Lord Himself, in His arca form, appear before us resembling matter to give us the facility to see spirit with material eyes. In the beginning this may be difficult for a neophyte to understand, but in due course, when one is advanced in devotional service, it will be easier, and he will appreciate the Lord's presence in these tangible forms.
cintamani-bhumi, kalpa-vrksa-maya vana
carma-cakse dekhe tare prapancera sama
cintamani-bhumi--the land of touchstone; kalpa-vrksa-maya--full of desire trees; vana--forests; carma-cakse--the material eyes; dekhe--see; tare--it; prapancera sama--equal to the material creation.
The land there is touchstone [cintamani], and the forests abound with desire trees. Material eyes see it as an ordinary place.
By the grace of the Lord His dhamas and He Himself can all be present simultaneously, without losing their original importance. Only when one fully develops in affection and love of Godhead can one see those dhamas in their original appearance.
Srila Narottama dasa Thakura, a great acarya in the preceptorial line of Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, has said for our benefit that one can perfectly see the dhamas only when one completely gives up the mentality of lording it over material nature. One's spiritual vision develops proportionately to one's giving up the debased mentality of unnecessarily enjoying matter. A diseased person who has become diseased because of a certain bad habit must be ready to follow the advice of the physician, and as a natural sequence he must attempt to give up the cause of the disease. The patient cannot indulge in the bad habit and at the same time expect to be cured by the physician. Modern material civilization, however, is maintaining a diseased atmosphere. The living being is a spiritual spark, as spiritual as the Lord Himself. The only difference is that the Lord is great and the living being is small. Qualitatively they are one, but quantitatively they are different. Therefore, since the living being is spiritual in constitution, he can be happy only in the spiritual sky, where there are unlimited spiritual spheres called Vaikunthas. A spiritual being conditioned by a material body must therefore try to get rid of his disease instead of developing the cause of the disease.
Foolish persons engrossed in their material assets are unnecessarily proud of being leaders of the people, but they ignore the spiritual value of man. Such illusioned leaders make plans covering any number of years, but they can hardly make humanity happy in a state conditioned by the threefold miseries inflicted by material nature. One cannot control the laws of nature by any amount of struggling. One must at last be subject to death, nature's ultimate law. Death, birth, old age and illness are symptoms of the diseased condition of the living being. The highest aim of human life should therefore be to get free from these miseries and go back home, back to Godhead.
prema-netre--with the eyes of love of Godhead; dekhe--one sees; tara--its; svarupa-prakasa--manifestation of identity; gopa--cowherd boys; gopi-sange--with the cowherd damsels; yanha--where; krsnera vilasa--the pastimes of Lord Krsna.
But with the eyes of love of Godhead one can see its real identity as the place where Lord Krsna performs His pastimes with the cowherd boys and cowherd girls.
cintamani--touchstone; prakara--groups made of; sadmasu--in abodes; kalpa-vrksa--of desire trees; laksa--by millions; avrtesu--surrounded; surabhih--surabhi cows; abhipalayantam--tending; laksmi--of goddesses of fortune; sahasra--of thousands; sata--by hundreds; sambhrama--with great respect; sevyamanam--being served; govindam--Govinda; adi-purusam--the original person; tam--Him; aham--I; bhajami--worship.
"I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, the first progenitor, who is tending cows yielding all desires in abodes built with spiritual gems and surrounded by millions of purpose trees. He is always served with great reverence and affection by hundreds and thousands of goddesses of fortune."
This is a verse from the Brahma-samhita (5.29). This description of the abode of Krsna gives us definite information of the transcendental place where not only is life eternal, blissful and full of knowledge, but there are ample vegetables, milk, jewels, and beautiful homes and gardens tended by lovely damsels who are all goddesses of fortune. Krsnaloka is the topmost planet in the spiritual sky, and below it are innumerable spheres, a description of which can be found in Srimad-Bhagavatam. In the beginning of Lord Brahma's self-realization he was shown a transcendental vision of the Vaikuntha spheres by the grace of Narayana. Later, by the grace of Krsna, he was shown a transcendental vision of Krsnaloka. This transcendental vision is like the reception of television from the moon via a mechanical system for receiving modulated waves, but it is achieved by penance and meditation within oneself.
Srimad-Bhagavatam (Second Canto) states that in Vaikunthaloka the material modes of nature, represented by the qualities of goodness, passion and ignorance, have no influence. In the material world the highest qualitative manifestation is goodness, which is characterized by truthfulness, mental equilibrium, cleanliness, control of the senses, simplicity, essential knowledge, faith in God, scientific knowledge and so on. Nevertheless, all these qualities are mixed with passion and imperfection. But the qualities in Vaikuntha are a manifestation of God's internal potency, and therefore they are purely spiritual and transcendental, with no trace of material infection. No material planet, even Satyaloka, is comparable in quality to the spiritual planets, where the five inherent qualities of the material world--namely, ignorance, misery, egoism, anger and envy--are completely absent.
In the material world, everything is a creation. Anything we can think of within our experience, including even our own bodies and minds, was created. This process of creation began with the life of Brahma, and the creative principle is prevalent all over the material universe because of the quality of passion. But since the quality of passion is conspicuous by its absence in the Vaikuntha planets, nothing there is created: everything there is eternally existent. And because there is no mode of ignorance, there is also no question of annihilation or destruction. In the material world one may try to make everything permanent by developing the above-mentioned qualities of goodness, but because the goodness in the material world is mixed with passion and ignorance, nothing here can exist permanently, despite all the good plans of the best scientific brains. Therefore in the material world we have no experience of eternity, bliss and fullness of knowledge. But in the spiritual world, because of the complete absence of the qualitative modes, everything is eternal, blissful and cognizant. Everything can speak, everything can move, everything can hear, and everything can see in fully blessed existence for eternity. The situation being so, naturally space and time, in the forms of past, present and future, have no influence there. In the spiritual sky there is no change because time has no influence. Consequently, the influence of maya, the total external energy, which induces us to become more and more materialistic and forget our relationship with God, is also absent there.
As spiritual sparks of the beams emanating from the transcendental body of the Lord, we are all permanently related with Him and equal to Him in quality. The material energy is a covering of the spiritual spark, but in the absence of that material covering, the living beings in Vaikunthaloka are never forgetful of their identities: they are eternally cognizant of their relationship with God in their constitutional position of rendering transcendental loving service to the Lord. Because they constantly engage in the transcendental service of the Lord, it is natural to conclude that their senses are also transcendental, for one cannot serve the Lord with material senses. The inhabitants of Vaikunthaloka do not possess material senses with which to lord it over material nature.
Persons with a poor fund of knowledge conclude that a place void of material qualities must be some sort of formless nothingness. In reality, however, there are qualities in the spiritual world, but they are different from the material qualities because everything there is eternal, unlimited and pure. The atmosphere there is self-illuminating, and thus there is no need of a sun, a moon, fire electricity and so on. One who can reach that abode does not come back to the material world with a material body. There is no difference between atheists and the faithful in the Vaikuntha planets because all who settle there are freed from the material qualities, and thus suras and asuras become equally obedient loving servitors of the Lord.
The residents of Vaikuntha have brilliantly black complexions much more fascinating and attractive than the dull white and black complexions found in the material world. Their bodies, being spiritual, have no equals in the material world. The beauty of a bright cloud when lightning flashes on it merely hints at their beauty. Generally the inhabitants of Vaikuntha dress in yellow clothing. Their bodies are delicate and attractively built, and their eyes are like the petals of lotus flowers. Like Lord Visnu, the residents of Vaikuntha have four hands decorated with a conchshell, wheel, club and lotus flower. Their chests are beautifully broad and fully decorated with necklaces of a brilliant diamondlike metal surrounded by costly jewels never to be found in the material world. The residents of Vaikuntha are always powerful and effulgent. Some of them have complexions like red coral cat's eyes and lotus flowers, and each of them has earrings of costly jewels. On their heads they wear flowery crowns resembling garlands.
In the Vaikunthas there are airplanes, but they make no tumultuous sounds. Material airplanes are not at all safe: they can fall down and crash at any time, for matter is imperfect in every respect. In the spiritual sky, however, the airplanes are also spiritual, and they are spiritually brilliant and bright. These airplanes do not fly business executives, politicians or planning commissions as passengers, nor do they carry cargo or postal bags, for these are all unknown there. These planes are for pleasure trips only, and the residents of Vaikuntha fly in them with their heavenly, beautiful, fairylike consorts. Therefore these airplanes, full of residents of Vaikuntha, both male and female, increase the beauty of the spiritual sky. We cannot imagine how beautiful they are, but their beauty may be compared to the clouds in the sky accompanied by silver branches of electric lightning. The spiritual sky of Vaikunthaloka is always decorated in this way.
The full opulence of the internal potency of Godhead is always resplendent in Vaikunthaloka, where goddesses of fortune are ever-increasingly attached to serving the lotus feet of the Personality of Godhead. These goddesses of fortune, accompanied by their friends, always create a festive atmosphere of transcendental mirth. Always singing the glories of the Lord, they are not silent even for a moment.
There are unlimited Vaikuntha planets in the spiritual sky, and the ratio of these planets to the material planets in the material sky is three to one. Thus the poor materialist is busy making political adjustments on a planet that is most insignificant in God's creation. To say nothing of this planet earth, the whole universe, with innumerable planets throughout the galaxies, is comparable to a single mustard seed in a bag full of mustard seeds. But the poor materialist makes plans to live comfortably here and thus wastes his valuable human energy in something that is doomed to frustration. Instead of wasting his time with business speculations, he might have sought the life of plain living and high spiritual thinking and thus saved himself from perpetual materialistic unrest.
Even if a materialist wants to enjoy developed material facilities, he can transfer himself to planets where he can experience material pleasures much more advanced than those available on earth. The best plan is to prepare oneself to return to the spiritual sky after leaving the body. However, if one is intent on enjoying material facilities, one can transfer himself to other planets in the material sky by utilizing yogic powers. The playful spaceships of the astronauts are but childish entertainments and are of no use for this purpose. The astanga-yoga system is a materialistic art of controlling air by transferring it from the stomach to the navel, from the navel to the heart, from the heart to the collarbone, from there to the eyeballs, from there to the cerebellum and from there to any desired planet. The velocities of air and light are taken into consideration by the material scientist, but he has no information of the velocity of the mind and intelligence. We have some limited experience of the velocity of the mind because in a moment we can transfer our minds to places hundreds of thousands of miles away. Intelligence is even finer. Finer than intelligence is the soul, which is not matter like mind and intelligence but is spirit, or antimatter. The soul is hundreds of thousands of times finer and more powerful than intelligence. We can thus only imagine the velocity of the soul in its traveling from one planet to another. Needless to say, the soul travels by its own strength and not with the help of any kind of material vehicle.
The bestial civilization of eating, sleeping, fearing and sense-gratifying has misled modern man into forgetting how powerful a soul he has. As we have already described, the soul is a spiritual spark many, many times more illuminating, dazzling and powerful than the sun, moon or electricity. Human life is spoiled when man does not realize his real identity with his soul. Lord Caitanya appeared with Lord Nityananda to save man from this type of misleading civilization.
Srimad-Bhagavatam also describes how yogis can travel to all the planets in the universe. When the vital force is lifted to the cerebellum, there is every chance that this force will burst out from the eyes, nose, ears, etc., as these are places that are known as the seventh orbit of the vital force. But the yogis can block these holes by complete suspension of air. The yogi then concentrates the vital force in the middle position, that is, between the eyebrows. At this position, the yogi can think of the planet into which he wants to enter after leaving the body. He can then decide whether he wants to go to the abode of Krsna in the transcendental Vaikunthas, from which he will not be required to descend into the material world, or to travel to higher planets in the material universe. The perfect yogi is at liberty to do either.
For the perfect yogi who has attained success in the method of leaving his body in perfect consciousness, transferring from one planet to another is as easy as an ordinary man's walking to the grocery store. As already discussed, the material body is just a covering of the spiritual soul. Mind and intelligence are the undercoverings, and the gross body of earth, water, air and so on is the overcoating of the soul. As such, any advanced soul who has realized himself by the yogic process, who knows the relationship between matter and spirit, can leave the gross dress of the soul in perfect order and as he desires. By the grace of God, we have complete freedom. Because the Lord is kind to us, we can live anywhere--either in the spiritual sky or in the material sky, upon whichever planet we desire. However, misuse of this freedom causes one to fall down into the material world and suffer the threefold miseries of conditioned life. The living of a miserable life in the material world by dint of the soul's choice is nicely illustrated by Milton in Paradise Lost. Similarly, by choice the soul can regain paradise and return home, back to Godhead.
At the critical time of death, one can place the vital force between the two eyebrows and decide where he wants to go. If he is reluctant to maintain any connection with the material world, he can, in less than a second, reach the transcendental Vaikuntha and appear there completely in his spiritual body, which will be suitable for him in the spiritual atmosphere. He has simply to desire to leave the material world both in finer and in grosser forms and then move the vital force to the topmost part of the skull and leave the body from the hole in the skull called the brahma-randhra. This is easy for one perfect in the practice of yoga.
Of course, man is endowed with free will, and as such if he does not want to free himself from the material world he may enjoy the life of brahma-pada (occupation of the post of Brahma) and visit Siddhaloka, the planet of materially perfect beings who have full capacities to control gravity, space and time. To visit such higher planets in the material universe, one need not give up his mind and intelligence (finer matter), but need only give up grosser matter (the material body).
Each and every planet has its particular atmosphere, and if one wants to travel to any particular planet within the material universe, one has to adapt his material body to the climatic condition of that planet. For instance, if one wants to go from India to Europe, where the climatic condition is different, one has to change his dress accordingly. Similarly, a complete change of body is necessary if one wants to go to the transcendental planets of Vaikuntha. However, if one wants to go to the higher material planets, he can keep his finer dress of mind, intelligence and ego, but has to leave his gross dress (body) made of earth, water, fire, etc.
When one goes to a transcendental planet, it is necessary to change both the finer and gross bodies, for one has to reach the spiritual sky completely in a spiritual form. This change of dress will take place automatically at the time of death if one so desires.
The Bhagavad-gita confirms that one will attain his next material body according to his desires at the time he leaves his body. The desire of the mind carries the soul to a suitable atmosphere as the wind carries aromas from one place to another. Unfortunately, those who are not yogis but gross materialists, who throughout their lives indulge in sense gratification, are puzzled by the disarrangement of the bodily and mental condition at the time of death. Such gross sensualists, encumbered by the main ideas, desires and associations of the lives they have led, desire something against their interest and thus foolishly take on new bodies that perpetuate their material miseries.
Systematic training of the mind and intelligence is therefore needed so that at the time of death one may consciously desire a suitable body, either on this planet or another material planet or even a transcendental planet. A civilization that does not consider the progressive advancement of the immortal soul merely fosters a bestial life of ignorance.
It is foolish to think that every soul that passes away goes to the same place. Either the soul goes to a place he desires at the time of death, or upon leaving his body he is forced to accept a position according to his acts in his previous life. The difference between the materialist and the yogi is that a materialist cannot determine his next body, whereas a yogi can consciously attain a suitable body for enjoyment in the higher planets. Throughout his life, the gross materialist who is constantly after sense gratification spends all day earning his livelihood to maintain his family, and at night he wastes his energy in sex enjoyment or else goes to sleep thinking about all he has done in the daytime. That is the monotonous life of the materialist. Although differently graded as businessmen, lawyers, politicians, professors, judges, coolies, pickpockets, laborers and so on, materialists all simply engage in eating, sleeping, fearing and sense gratification and thus spoil their valuable lives pursuing luxury and neglecting to perfect their lives through spiritual realization.
Yogis, however, try to perfect their lives, and therefore the Bhagavad-gita enjoins that everyone should become a yogi. Yoga is the system for linking the soul in the service of the Lord. Only under superior guidance can one practice such yoga in his life without changing his social position. As already described, a yogi can go anywhere he desires without mechanical help, for a yogi can place his mind and intelligence within the air circulating inside his body, and by practicing the art of breath control he can mix that air with the air that blows all over the universe outside his body. With the help of this universal air, a yogi can travel to any planet and get a body suitable for its atmosphere. We can understand this process by comparing it to the electronic transmission of radio messages. With radio transmitters, sound waves produced at a certain station can travel all over the earth in seconds. But sound is produced from the ethereal sky, and as already explained, subtler than the ethereal sky is the mind, and finer than the mind is the intelligence. Spirit is still finer than the intelligence, and by nature it is completely different from matter. Thus we can just imagine how quickly the spirit soul can travel through the universal atmosphere.
To come to the stage of manipulating finer elements like mind, intelligence and spirit, one needs appropriate training, an appropriate mode of life and appropriate association. Such training depends upon sincere prayers, devotional service, achievement of success in mystic perfection, and the successful merging of oneself in the activities of the soul and Supersoul. A gross materialist, whether he be an empiric philosopher, a scientist, a psychologist or whatever, cannot attain such success through blunt efforts and word jugglery.
Materialists who perform yajnas, or great sacrifices, are comparatively better than grosser materialists who do not know anything beyond laboratories and test tubes. The advanced materialists who perform such sacrifices can reach the planet called Vaisvanara, a fiery planet similar to the sun. On this planet, which is situated on the way to Brahmaloka, the topmost planet in the universe, such an advanced materialist can free himself from all traces of vice and its effects. When such a materialist is purified, he can rise to the orbit of the pole star (Dhruvaloka). Within this orbit, which is called the Sisumara-cakra, are situated the Aditya-lokas and the Vaikuntha planet within this universe.
A purified materialist who has performed many sacrifices, undergone severe penances and given the major portion of his wealth in charity can reach such planets as Dhruvaloka, and if he becomes still more qualified there, he can penetrate still higher orbits and pass through the navel of the universe to reach the planet Maharloka, where sages like Bhrgu Muni live. In Maharloka one can live even to the time of the partial annihilation of the universe. This annihilation begins when Anantadeva, from the lowest position in the universe, produces a great blazing fire. The heat of this fire reaches even Maharloka, and then the residents of Maharloka travel to Brahmaloka, which exists for twice the duration of parardha time.
In Brahmaloka there is an unlimited number of airplanes that are controlled not by yantra (machine) but mantra (psychic action). Because of the existence of the mind and intelligence on Brahmaloka, its residents have feelings of happiness and distress, but there is no cause of lamentation from old age, death, fear or distress. They feel sympathy, however, for the suffering living beings who are consumed in the fire of annihilation. The residents of Brahmaloka do not have gross material bodies to change at death, but they transform their subtle bodies into spiritual bodies and thus enter the spiritual sky. The residents of Brahmaloka can attain perfection in three different ways. Virtuous persons who reach Brahmaloka by dint of their pious work become masters of various planets after the resurrection of Brahma, those who have worshiped Garbhodakasayi Visnu are liberated with Brahma, and those who are pure devotees of the Personality of Godhead at once push through the covering of the universe and enter the spiritual sky.
The numberless universes exist together in foamlike clusters, and so only some of them are surrounded by the water of the Causal Ocean. When agitated by the glance of Karanodakasayi Visnu, material nature produces the total elements, which are eight in number and which gradually evolve from finer to gross. A part of ego is the sky, a part of which is air, a part of which is fire, a part of which is water, a part of which is earth. Thus one universe inflates to an area of four billion miles in diameter. A yogi who desires gradual liberation must penetrate all the different coverings of the universe, including the subtle coverings of the three qualitative modes of material nature. One who does this never has to return to this mortal world.
According to Sukadeva Gosvami, the above description of the material and spiritual skies is neither imaginary nor utopian. The actual facts are recorded in the Vedic hymns, and Lord Vasudeva disclosed them to Lord Brahma when Brahma satisfied Him. One can achieve the perfection of life only when he has a definite idea of Vaikuntha and the Supreme Godhead. One should always think about and describe the Supreme Personality of Godhead, for this is recommended in both the Bhagavad-gita and the Bhagavata Purana, which are two authorized commentaries upon the Vedas. Lord Caitanya has made all these subject matters easier for the fallen people of this age to accept, and Sri Caitanya-caritamrta has therefore presented them for the easy understanding of all concerned.
vasudeva--Lord Vasudeva; sankarsana--Lord Sankarsana; pradyumna--Lord Pradyumna; aniruddha--and Lord Aniruddha; sarva-catuh-vyuha--of all other quadruple expansions; amsi--source; turiya--transcendental; visuddha--pure.
Vasudeva, Sankarsana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha are the primary quadruple forms from whom all other quadruple forms are manifested. They are all purely transcendental.
ei tina loke krsna kevala-lila-maya
nija-gana lana khele ananta samaya
ei--these; tina--three; loke--in the locations; krsna--Lord Krsna; kevala--only; lila-maya--consisting of pastimes; nija-gana lana--with His personal associates; khele--He plays; ananta samaya--unlimited time.
Only in these three places [Dvaraka, Mathura and Gokula] does the all-sporting Lord Krsna perform His endless pastimes with His personal associates.
para-vyoma-madhye kari' svarupa prakasa
narayana-rupe karena vividha vilasa
para-vyoma-madhye--within the spiritual sky; kari'--making; svarupa prakasa--manifesting His identity; narayana-rupe--the form of Lord Narayana; karena--performs; vividha vilasa--varieties of pastimes.
In the Vaikuntha planets of the spiritual sky the Lord manifests His identity as Narayana and performs pastimes in various ways.
svarupa-vigraha krsnera kevala dvi-bhuja
narayana-rupe sei tanu catur-bhuja
svarupa-vigraha--personal form; krsnera--of Lord Krsna; kevala--only; dvi-bhuja--two hands; narayana-rupe--in the form of Lord Narayana; sei--that; tanu--body; catuh-bhuja--four-handed; sankha-cakra--conchshell and disc; gada--club; padma--lotus flower; maha--very great; aisvarya-maya--full of opulence; sri--named sri; bhu--named bhu; nila--named nila; sakti--energies; yanra--whose; carana sevaya--serve the lotus feet.
Krsna's own form has only two hands, but in the form of Lord Narayana He has four hands. Lord Narayana holds a conchshell, disc, club and lotus flower, and He is full of great opulence. The sri, bhu and nila energies serve at His lotus feet.
In the Ramanuja and Madhva sects of Vaisnavism there are extensive descriptions of the sri, bhu and nila energies. In Bengal the nila energy is sometimes called the lila energy. These three energies are employed in the service of four-handed Narayana in Vaikuntha. Relating how three of the Alwars, namely Bhuta-yogi, Sara-yogi and Bhranta-yogi, saw Narayana in person when they took shelter at the house of a brahmana in the village of Gehali, the Prapannamrta of the Sri-sampradaya describes Narayana as follows:
"They saw the lotus-eyed Lord Visnu, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, mounted on Garuda and holding Laksmi, the goddess of fortune, to His chest. He resembled a bluish rain cloud with flashing lightning, and in two of His four hands He held a conchshell and disc. His arms stretched down to His knees, and all His beautiful limbs were smeared with sandalwood and decorated with glittering ornaments. He wore yellow clothes, and by either side stood His energies Bhumi and Nila."
There is the following reference to the sri, bhu and nila energies in the Sitopanisad: maha-laksmir devesasya bhinnabhinna-rupa cetanacetanatmika. sa devi tri-vidha bhavati, sakty-atmana iccha-saktih kriya-saktih saksac-chaktir iti. iccha-saktis tri-vidha bhavati, sri-bhumi-nilatmika. "Maha-Laksmi, the supreme energy of the Lord, is experienced in different ways. She is divided into material and spiritual potencies, and in both features she acts as the willing energy, creative energy and the internal energy. The willing energy is again divided into three, namely sri, bhu and nila."
Quoting from the revealed scriptures in his commentary on the Bhagavad-gita (4.6), Madhvacarya has stated that mother material nature, which is conceived of as the illusory energy, Durga, has three divisions, namely sri, bhu and nila. She is the illusory energy for those who are weak in spiritual strength because such energies are created energies of Lord Visnu. Although each energy has no direct relationship with the unlimited, they are subordinate to the Lord because the Lord is the master of all energies.
In his Bhagavat-sandarbha (Part 23, Texts 8-9), Srila Jiva Gosvami Prabhu states: "The Padma Purana refers to the eternally auspicious abode of Godhead, which is full in all opulences, including the energies sri, bhu and nila. The Maha-samhita, which discusses the transcendental name and form of Godhead, also mentions Durga as the potency of the Supersoul in relationship with the living entities. The internal potency acts in relation with His personal affairs, and the material potency manifests the three modes." Quoting elsewhere from the revealed scriptures, he states that sri is the energy of Godhead that maintains the cosmic manifestation, bhu is the energy that creates the cosmic manifestation, and nila, Durga, is the energy that destroys the creation. All these energies act in relation with the living beings, and thus they are together called jiva-maya.
yadyapi--although; kevala--only; tanra--His; krida-matra--pastime only; dharma--characteristic function; tathapi--still; jivere--to the fallen souls; krpaya--by the causeless mercy; kare--does; eka--one; karma--activity.
Although His pastimes are His only characteristic functions, by His causeless mercy He performs one activity for the fallen souls.
cari mukti diya kare jivera nistara
salokya--the liberation called salokya; samipya--the liberation called samipya; sarsti--the liberation called sarsti; sarupya--the liberation called sarupya; prakara--varieties; cari--four; mukti--liberation; diya--giving; kare--does; jivera--of the fallen souls; nistara--deliverance.
He delivers the fallen living entities by offering them the four kinds of liberation--salokya, samipya, sarsti and sarupya.
There are two kinds of liberated souls--those who are liberated by the favor of the Lord and those who are liberated by their own effort. One who gets liberation by his own effort is called an impersonalist, and he merges in the glaring effulgence of the Lord, the brahmajyoti. But devotees of the Lord who qualify themselves for liberation by devotional service are offered four kinds of liberation, namely salokya (status equal to that of the Lord), samipya (constant association with the Lord), sarsti (opulence equal to that of the Lord) and sarupya (features like those of the Lord).
brahma-sayujya-muktera taha nahi gati
vaikuntha-bahire haya ta'-sabara sthiti
brahma-sayujya--of merging into the Supreme Brahman; muktera--of the liberation; taha--there (in Vaikuntha); nahi--not; gati--entrance; vaikuntha-bahire--outside the Vaikuntha planets; haya--there is; ta'-sabara sthiti--the residence of all of them.
Those who attain brahma-sayujya liberation cannot gain entrance into Vaikuntha; their residence is outside the Vaikuntha planets.
vaikuntha-bahire--outside the Vaikunthalokas; eka--one; jyotih-maya mandala--the atmosphere of the glowing effulgence; krsnera--of Lord Krsna; angera--of the body; prabha--rays; parama--supremely; ujjvala--bright.
Outside the Vaikuntha planets is the atmosphere of the glowing effulgence, which consists of the supremely bright rays of the body of Lord Krsna.
'siddha-loka' nama tara prakrtira para
cit-svarupa, tanha nahi cic-chakti vikara
'siddha-loka'--the region of the Siddhas; nama--named; tara--of the effulgent atmosphere; prakrtira para--beyond this material nature; cit-svarupa--full of knowledge; tanha--there; nahi--there is not; cit-sakti-vikara--change of the spiritual energy.
That region is called Siddhaloka, and it is beyond the material nature. Its essence is spiritual, but it does not have spiritual varieties.
surya-mandala--the sun globe; yena--like; bahire--externally; nirvisesa--with out varieties; bhitare--within; suryera--of the sun-god; ratha-adi--opulences like chariots and other things; sa-visesa--full of varieties.
It is like the homogeneous effulgence around the sun. But inside the sun are the chariots, horses and other opulences of the sun-god.
Outside of Vaikuntha, the abode of Krsna, which is called paravyoma, is the glaring effulgence of Krsna's bodily rays. This is called the brahmajyoti. The transcendental region of that effulgence is called Siddhaloka or Brahmaloka. When impersonalists achieve liberation, they merge into that Brahmaloka effulgence. This transcendental region is undoubtedly spiritual, but it contains no manifestations of spiritual activities or variegatedness. It is compared to the glow of the sun. Within the sun's glow is the sphere of the sun, where one can experience all sorts of varieties.
kamad dvesad bhayat snehad
yatha bhaktyesvare manah
avesya tad agham hitva
bahavas tad gatim gatah
kamat--influenced by lusty desire; dvesat--by envy; bhayat--by fear; snehat--or by affection; yatha--as; bhaktya--by devotion; isvare--in the Supreme Personality of Godhead; manah--the mind; avesya--fully absorbing; tat--that; agham--sinful activity; hitva--giving up; bahavah--many; tat--that; gatim--destination; gatah--achieved.
"As through devotion to the Lord one can attain His abode, many have attained that goal by abandoning their sinful activities and absorbing their minds in the Lord through lust, envy, fear or affection."
As the powerful sun, by its glowing rays, can purify all kinds of impurities, so the all-spiritual Personality of Godhead can purify all material qualities in a person He attracts. Even if one is attracted by Godhead in the mode of material lust, such attraction is converted into spiritual love of Godhead by His grace. Similarly, if one is related to the Lord in fear and animosity, he also becomes purified by the spiritual attraction of the Lord. Although God is great and the living entity small, they are spiritual individuals, and therefore as soon as there is a reciprocal exchange by the living entity's free will, at once the great spiritual being attracts the small living entity, thus freeing him from all material bondage. This is a verse from Srimad-Bhagavatam (7.1.30).
yad arinam priyanam ca
prapyam ekam ivoditam
tad brahma-krsnayor aikyat
yat--that; arinam--of the enemies of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; priyanam--of the devotees, who are very dear to the Supreme Personality of Godhead; ca--and; prapyam--destination; ekam--one only; iva--thus; uditam--said; tat--that; brahma--of impersonal Brahman; krsnayoh--and of Krsna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead; aikyat--due to the oneness; kirana--the sunshine; arka--and the sun; upama--the comparison; jusoh--which is understood by.
"Where it has been stated that the Lord's enemies and devotees attain the same destination, this refers to the ultimate oneness of Brahman and Lord Krsna. This may be understood by the example of the sun and the sunshine, in which Brahman is like the sunshine and Krsna Himself is like the sun."
This verse is from the Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (1.2.278) of Srila Rupa Gosvami, who further discusses this same topic in his Laghu-bhagavatamrta (Purva 5.41). There he refers to the Visnu Purana (4.15.1), where Maitreya Muni asked Parasara, in regard to Jaya and Vijaya, how it was that Hiranyakasipu next became Ravana and enjoyed more material happiness than the demigods but did not attain salvation, although when he became Sisupala, quarreled with Krsna and was killed, he attained salvation and merged into the body of Lord Krsna. Parasara replied that Hiranyakasipu failed to recognize Lord Nrsimhadeva as Lord Visnu. He thought that Nrsimhadeva was some living entity who had acquired such opulence by various pious activities. Being overcome by the mode of passion, he considered Lord Nrsimhadeva an ordinary living entity, not understanding His form. Nevertheless, because Hiranyakasipu was killed by the hands of Lord Nrsimhadeva, in his next life he became Ravana and had proprietorship of unlimited opulence. As Ravana, with unlimited material enjoyment, he could not accept Lord Rama as the Personality of Godhead. Therefore even though he was killed by Rama, he did not attain sayujya, or oneness with the body of the Lord. In his Ravana body he was too much attracted to Rama's wife, Janaki, and because of that attraction he was able to see Lord Rama. But instead of accepting Lord Rama as an incarnation of Visnu, Ravana thought Him an ordinary living being. When killed by the hands of Rama, therefore, he got the privilege of taking birth as Sisupala, who had such immense opulence that he could think himself a competitor to Krsna. Although Sisupala was always envious of Krsna, he frequently uttered the name of Krsna and always thought of the beautiful features of Krsna. Thus by constantly thinking and chanting of Krsna, even unfavorably, he was cleansed of the contamination of his sinful activities. When Sisupala was killed by the Sudarsana cakra of Krsna as an enemy, his constant remembrance of Krsna dissolved the reactions of his vices, and he attained salvation by becoming one with the body of the Lord.
From this incident one can understand that even a person who thinks of Krsna as an enemy and is killed by Him may be liberated by becoming one with the body of Krsna. What then must be the destination of devotees who always think favorably of Krsna as their master or friend? These devotees must attain a situation better than Brahmaloka, the impersonal bodily effulgence of Krsna. Devotees cannot be situated in the impersonal Brahman effulgence, into which impersonalists desire to merge. The devotees are placed in Vaikunthaloka or Krsnaloka.
This discussion between Maitreya Muni and Parasara Muni centered on whether devotees come down into the material world in every millennium like Jaya and Vijaya, who were cursed by the Kumaras to that effect. In the course of these instructions to Maitreya about Hiranyakasipu, Ravana and Sisupala, Parasara did not say that these demons were formerly Jaya and Vijaya. He simply described the transmigration through three lives. It is not necessary for the Vaikuntha associates of the Supreme Personality of Godhead to come to take the roles of His enemies in all the millenniums in which He appears. The "falldown" of Jaya and Vijaya occurred in a particular millennium; Jaya and Vijaya do not come down in every millennium to act as demons. To think that some associates of the Lord fall down from Vaikuntha in every millennium to become demons is totally incorrect.
The Supreme Personality of Godhead has all the tendencies that may be found in the living entity, for He is the chief living entity. Therefore it is natural that sometimes Lord Visnu wants to fight. Just as He has the tendencies to create, to enjoy, to be a friend, to accept a mother and father, and so on, He also has the tendency to fight. Sometimes important landlords and kings keep wrestlers with whom they practice mock fighting, and Visnu makes similar arrangements. The demons who fight with the Supreme Personality of Godhead in the material world are sometimes His associates. When there is a scarcity of demons and the Lord wants to fight, He instigates some of His associates of Vaikuntha to come and play as demons. When it is said that Sisupala merged into the body of Krsna, it should be noted that in this case he was not Jaya or Vijaya; he was actually a demon.
In his Brhad-bhagavatamrta, Srila Sanatana Gosvami has explained that the attainment of salvation by merging into the Brahman effulgence of the Lord cannot be accepted as the highest success in life, because demons like Kamsa, who were famous for killing brahmanas and cows, attained that salvation. For devotees such salvation is abominable. Devotees are actually in a transcendental position, whereas nondevotees are candidates for hellish conditions of life. There is always a difference between the life of a devotee and the life of a demon, and their realizations are as different as heaven and hell.
Demons are always accustomed to be malicious toward devotees and to kill brahmanas and cows. For demons, merging in the Brahman effulgence may be very glorious, but for devotees it is hellish. A devotee's aim in life is to attain perfection in loving the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Those who aspire to merge into the Brahman effulgence are as abominable as demons. Devotees who aspire to associate with the Supreme Lord to render Him transcendental loving service are far superior.
taiche--in that way; para-vyome--in the spiritual sky; nana--varieties; cit-sakti-vilasa--pastimes of spiritual energy; nirvisesa--impersonal; jyotih--of the effulgence; bimba--reflection; bahire--externally; prakasa--manifested.
Thus in the spiritual sky there are varieties of pastimes within the spiritual energy. Outside the Vaikuntha planets appears the impersonal reflection of light.
nirvisesa-brahma sei kevala jyotir-maya
sayujyera adhikari tanha paya laya
nirvisesa-brahma--the impersonal Brahman effulgence; sei--that; kevala--only; jyotih-maya--effulgent rays; sayujyera--the liberation called sayujya (oneness with the Supreme); adhikari--one who is fit for; tanha--there (in the impersonal Brahman effulgence); paya--gets; laya--merging.
That impersonal Brahman effulgence consists only of the effulgent rays of the Lord. Those fit for sayujya liberation merge into that effulgence.
siddha-lokas tu tamasah
pare yatra vasanti hi
siddha brahma-sukhe magna
daityas ca harina hatah
siddha-lokah--Siddhaloka, or impersonal Brahman; tu--but; tamasah--of darkness; pare--beyond the jurisdiction; yatra--where; vasanti--reside; hi--certainly; siddhah--the spiritually perfect; brahma-sukhe--in the transcendental bliss of becoming one with the Supreme; magnah--absorbed; daityah ca--as well as the demons; harina--by the Supreme Personality of Godhead; hatah--killed.
"Beyond the region of ignorance [the material cosmic manifestation] lies the realm of Siddhaloka. The Siddhas reside there, absorbed in the bliss of Brahman. Demons killed by the Lord also attain that realm."
Tamas means darkness. The material world is dark, and beyond the material world is light. In other words, after passing through the entire material atmosphere, one can come to the luminous spiritual sky, whose impersonal effulgence is known as Siddhaloka. Mayavadi philosophers who aspire to merge with the body of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, as well as demoniac persons who are killed by Krsna, such as Kamsa and Sisupala, enter that Brahman effulgence. Yogis who attain oneness through meditation according to the Patanjali yoga system also reach Siddhaloka. This is a verse from the Brahmanda Purana.
sei para-vyome narayanera cari pase
dvaraka-catur-vyuhera dvitiya prakase
sei--that; para-vyome--in the spiritual sky; narayanera--of Lord Narayana; cari pase--on four sides; dvaraka--Dvaraka; catur-vyuhera--of the quadruple expansions; dvitiya--the second; prakase--manifestation.
In that spiritual sky, on the four sides of Narayana, are the second expansions of the quadruple expansions of Dvaraka.
Within the spiritual sky is a second manifestation of the quadruple forms of Dvaraka from the abode of Krsna. Among these forms, which are all spiritual and immune to the material modes, Sri Baladeva is represented as Maha-sankarsana.
The actions in the spiritual sky are manifested by the internal potency in pure spiritual existence. They expand in six transcendental opulences, which are all manifestations of Maha-sankarsana, who is the ultimate reservoir and objective of all living entities. Although belonging to the marginal potency known as jiva-sakti, the spiritual sparks known as the living entities are subjected to the conditions of material energy. It is because these sparks are related with both the internal and external potencies of the Lord that they are known as belonging to the marginal potency.
In considering the quadruple forms of the absolute Personality of Godhead, known as Vasudeva, Sankarsana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha, the impersonalists, headed by Sripada Sankaracarya, have interpreted the aphorisms of the Vedanta-sutra in a way suitable for the impersonalist school. To provide the intrinsic import of such aphorisms, however, Srila Rupa Gosvami, the leader of the six Gosvamis of Vrndavana, has properly replied to the impersonalists in his Laghu-bhagavatamrta, which is a natural commentary on the aphorisms of the Vedanta-sutra.
The Padma Purana, as quoted by Srila Rupa Gosvami in his Laghu-bhagavatamrta, describes that in the spiritual sky there are four directions, corresponding to east, west, north and south, in which Vasudeva, Sankarsana, Aniruddha and Pradyumna are situated. The same forms are also situated in the material sky. The Padma Purana also describes a place in the spiritual sky known as Vedavati-pura, where Vasudeva resides. In Visnuloka, which is above Satyaloka, Sankarsana resides. Maha-sankarsana is another name of Sankarsana. Pradyumna lives in Dvaraka-pura, and Aniruddha lies on the eternal bed of Sesa, generally known as ananta-sayya, on the island called Svetadvipa, in the ocean of milk.
vasudeva--the expansion named Vasudeva; sankarsana--the expansion named Sankarsana; pradyumna--the expansion named Pradyumna; aniruddha--the expansion named Aniruddha; dvitiya catuh-vyuha--the second quadruple expansion; ei--this; turiya--transcendental; visuddha--free from all material contamination.
Vasudeva, Sankarsana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha constitute this second quadruple. They are purely transcendental.
Sripada Sankaracarya has misleadingly explained the quadruple form (catur-vyuha) in his interpretation of the forty-second aphorism of Chapter Two of the second khanda of the Vedanta-sutra (utpatty-asambhavat). In verses 41 through 47 of this chapter of Sri Caitanya-caritamrta, Srila Krsnadasa Kaviraja Gosvami answers Sripada Sankaracarya's misleading objections to the personal feature of the Absolute Truth.
The Supreme Personality of Godhead, the Absolute Truth, is not like a material object that can be known by experimental knowledge or sense perception. In the Narada-pancaratra this fact has been explained by Narayana Himself to Lord Siva. But Sankaracarya, the incarnation of Siva, under the order of Narayana, his master, had to mislead the monists, who favor ultimate extinction. In the conditioned stage of existence, all living entities have four basic defects, of which one is the cheating propensity. Sankaracarya has carried this cheating propensity to the extreme to mislead the monists.
Actually, the quadruple forms explained in the Vedic literature cannot be understood by the speculation of a conditioned soul. The quadruple forms should therefore be accepted just as They are described. The authority of the Vedas is such that even if one does not understand something by his limited perception, he should accept the Vedic injunction and not create interpretations to suit his imperfect understanding. In his Sariraka-bhasya, however, Sankaracarya has increased the misunderstanding of the monists.
The quadruple forms have a spiritual existence that can be realized in vasudeva-sattva (suddha-sattva), or unqualified goodness, which accompanies complete absorption in the understanding of Vasudeva. The quadruple forms, who are full of the six opulences of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, are the enjoyers of the internal potency. Thinking the absolute Personality of Godhead to be poverty-stricken or to have no potency--or, in other words, to be impotent--is simply rascaldom. This rascaldom is the profession of the conditioned soul, and it increases his bewilderment. One who cannot understand the distinctions between the spiritual world and the material world has no qualification to examine or know the situation of the transcendental quadruple forms. In his commentary on Vedanta-sutra 2.2.42-45, His Holiness Sripada Sankaracarya has made a futile attempt to nullify the existence of these quadruple forms in the spiritual world.
Sankaracarya says (sutra 42) that devotees think the Supreme Personality of Godhead Vasudeva, Sri Krsna, to be one, to be free from material qualities and to have a transcendental body full of bliss and eternal existence. He is the ultimate goal of the devotees, who believe that the Supreme Personality of Godhead expands Himself into four other eternal transcendental forms--Vasudeva, Sankarsana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha. From Vasudeva, who is the primary expansion, come Sankarsana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha in that order. Another name of Vasudeva is Paramatma, another name of Sankarsana is jiva (the living entity), another name of Pradyumna is mind, and another name of Aniruddha is ahankara (false ego). Among these expansions, Vasudeva is considered the origin of material nature. Therefore Sankaracarya says that Sankarsana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha must be creations of that original cause.
Great souls assert that Narayana, who is known as Paramatma, the Supersoul, is beyond material nature, and this is in accordance with the statements of the Vedic literature. Mayavadis also agree that Narayana can expand Himself in various forms. Sankara says that he does not attempt to argue that portion of the devotees' understanding, but he must protest the idea that Sankarsana is produced from Vasudeva, Pradyumna is produced from Sankarsana, and Aniruddha is produced from Pradyumna, for if Sankarsana is understood to represent the living entities created from the body of Vasudeva, the living entities would have to be noneternal. The living entities are supposed to be freed from material contamination by engaging in prolonged temple worship of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, reading Vedic literature and performing yoga and pious activities to attain the Supreme Lord. But if the living entities had been created from material nature at a certain point, they would be noneternal and would have no chance to be liberated and associate with the Supreme Personality of Godhead. When a cause is nullified, its results are nullified. In the second chapter of the Vedanta-sutra's second khanda, Acarya Vedavyasa has also refuted the conception that the living beings were ever born (natma sruter nityatvac ca tabhyah). Because there is no creation for the living entities, they must be eternal.
Sankaracarya says (sutra 43) that devotees think that Pradyumna, who is considered to represent the senses, has sprung from Sankarsana, who is considered to represent the living entities. But we cannot actually experience that a person can produce senses. Devotees also say that from Pradyumna has sprung Aniruddha, who is considered to represent the ego. But Sankaracarya says that unless the devotees can show how ego and the means of knowledge can generate from a person, such an explanation of the Vedanta-sutra cannot be accepted, for no other philosophers accept the sutras in that way.
Sankaracarya also says (sutra 44) that he cannot accept the devotees' idea that Sankarsana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha are equally as powerful as the absolute Personality of Godhead, full in the six opulences of knowledge, wealth, strength, fame, beauty and renunciation, and free from the flaw of generation at a certain point. Even if They are full expansions, the flaw of generation remains. Vasudeva, Sankarsana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha, being distinct individual persons, cannot be one. Therefore if They are accepted as absolute, full and equal, there would have to be many Personalities of Godhead. But there is no need to accept that there are many Personalities of Godhead, because acceptance of one omnipotent God is sufficient for all purposes. The acceptance of more than one God is contradictory to the conclusion that Lord Vasudeva, the absolute Personality of Godhead, is one without a second. Even if we agree to accept that the quadruple forms of Godhead are all identical, we cannot avoid the incongruous flaw of noneternity. Unless we accept that there are some differences among the personalities, there is no meaning to the idea that Sankarsana is an expansion of Vasudeva, Pradyumna is an expansion of Sankarsana, and Aniruddha is an expansion of Pradyumna. There must be a distinction between cause and effect. For example, a pot is distinct from the earth from which it is made, and therefore we can ascertain that the earth is the cause and the pot is the effect. Without such distinctions, there is no meaning to cause and effect. Furthermore, the followers of the Pancaratric principles do not accept any differences in knowledge and qualities between Vasudeva, Sankarsana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha. The devotees accept all these expansions to be one, but why should they restrict oneness to these quadruple expansions? Certainly we should not do so, for all living entities, from Brahma to the insignificant ant, are expansions of Vasudeva, as accepted in all the srutis and smrtis.
Sankaracarya also says (sutra 45) that the devotees who follow the Pancaratra state that God's qualities and God Himself, as the owner of the qualities, are the same. But how can the Bhagavata school state that the six opulences--wisdom, wealth, strength, fame, beauty and renunciation--are identical with Lord Vasudeva? This is impossible.
In his Laghu-bhagavatamrta (Purva 5.165-193), Srila Rupa Gosvami has refuted the charges directed against the devotees by Sripada Sankaracarya regarding their explanation of the quadruple forms Vasudeva, Sankarsana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha. He says that these four expansions of Narayana are present in the spiritual sky, where They are famous as Mahavastha. Among Them, Vasudeva is worshiped within the heart by meditation because He is the predominating Deity of the heart, as explained in Srimad-Bhagavatam (4.3.23).
Sankarsana, the second expansion, is Vasudeva's personal expansion for pastimes, and since He is the reservoir of all living entities, He is sometimes called jiva. The beauty of Sankarsana is more than that of innumerable full moons radiating light beams. He is worshipable as the principle of ego. He has invested Anantadeva with all the potencies of sustenance. For the dissolution of the creation, He also exhibits Himself as the Supersoul in Rudra, irreligiosity, sarpa (the snake), antaka (death) and the demons.
Pradyumna, the third manifestation, appears from Sankarsana. Those who are especially intelligent worship this Pradyumna expansion of Sankarsana as the principle of the intelligence. The goddess of fortune always chants the glories of Pradyumna in the place known as Ilavrta-varsa, and she always serves Him with great devotion. His complexion appears sometimes golden and sometimes bluish like new monsoon clouds in the sky. He is the origin of the creation of the material world, and He has invested His creative principle in Cupid. It is by His direction only that all men and demigods and other living entities function with energy for regeneration.
Aniruddha, the fourth of the quadruple expansions, is worshiped by great sages and psychologists as the principle of the mind. His complexion is similar to the bluish hue of a blue cloud. He engages in the maintenance of the cosmic manifestation and is the Supersoul of Dharma (the deity of religiosity), the Manus (the progenitors of mankind) and the devatas (demigods). The Moksa-dharma Vedic scripture indicates that Pradyumna is the Deity of the total mind, whereas Aniruddha is the Deity of the total ego, but previous statements regarding the quadruple forms are confirmed in the Pancaratra tantras in all respects.
In the Laghu-bhagavatamrta (Purva 5.86-100), there is a lucid explanation of the inconceivable potencies of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Negating Sankaracarya's statements, the Maha-varaha Purana declares:
"All the varied expansions of the Personality of Godhead are transcendental and eternal, and all of them repeatedly descend to all the different universes of the material creation. Their bodies, composed of eternity, bliss and knowledge, are everlasting; there is no chance of their decaying, for they are not creations of the material world. Their forms are concentrated spiritual existence, always complete with all spiritual qualities and devoid of material contamination."
Confirming these statements, the Narada-pancaratra asserts:
"The infallible Personality of Godhead can manifest His body in different ways according to different modes of worship, just as the vaidurya gem can manifest itself in various colors, such as blue and yellow."
Each incarnation is distinct from all the others. This is possible by the Lord's inconceivable potency, by which He can simultaneously represent Himself as one, as various partial forms and as the origin of these partial forms. Nothing is impossible for His inconceivable potencies.
Krsna is one without a second, but He manifests Himself in different bodies, as stated by Narada in the Tenth Canto of Srimad-Bhagavatam:
"The same Personality of Godhead, Purusottama, the original person, who is always devoid of material qualities and contamination, can exhibit Himself in various forms and at the same time lie down in one form."
In the Tenth Canto of Srimad-Bhagavatam it is said, yajanti tvan-mayas tvam vai bahu-murty-eka-murtikam: "O my Lord, although You manifest Yourself in varieties of forms, You are one without a second. Therefore pure devotees concentrate upon You and worship only You." (Bhag. 10.40.7) In the Kurma Purana it is said:
"The Lord is personal although impersonal, He is atomic although great, and He is blackish and has red eyes although He is colorless."
By material calculation all this may appear contradictory, but if we understand that the Supreme Personality of Godhead has inconceivable potencies, we can accept these facts as eternally possible in Him. In our present condition we cannot understand the spiritual activities and how they occur, but although they are inconceivable in the material context, we should not disregard such contradictory conceptions.
Although it is apparently inconceivable, it is quite possible for the Absolute to reconcile all opposing elements. Srimad-Bhagavatam establishes this in the Sixth Canto (6.9.34-37):
"O my Lord, Your transcendental pastimes and enjoyments all appear inconceivable because they are not limited by the causal and effective actions of material thought. You can do everything without performing bodily work. The Vedas say that the Absolute Truth has multifarious potencies and does not need to do anything personally. My dear Lord, You are entirely devoid of material qualities. Without anyone's help, You can create, maintain and dissolve the entire qualitative material manifestation, yet in all such activities You do not change. You do not accept the results of Your activities, unlike ordinary demons and demigods, who suffer or enjoy the reactions of their activities in the material world. Unaffected by the reactions of work, You eternally exist with Your full spiritual potency. This we cannot fully understand.
"Because You are unlimited in Your six opulences, no one can count Your transcendental qualities. Philosophers and other thoughtful persons are overwhelmed by the contradictory manifestations of the physical world and the propositions of logical arguments and judgments. Because they are bewildered by word jugglery and disturbed by the different calculations of the scriptures, their theories cannot touch You, who are the ruler and controller of everyone and whose glories are beyond conception.
"Your inconceivable potency keeps You unattached to the mundane qualities. Surpassing all conceptions of material contemplation, Your pure transcendental knowledge keeps You beyond all speculative processes. By Your inconceivable potency, there is nothing contradictory in You.
"People may sometimes think of You as impersonal or personal, but You are one. For persons who are confused or bewildered, a rope may manifest itself as different kinds of snakes. For similar confused persons who are uncertain about You, You create various philosophical methods in pursuance of their uncertain positions."
We should always remember the differences between spiritual and material actions. The Supreme Lord, being all-spiritual, can perform any act without extraneous help. In the material world, if we want to manufacture an earthen pot, we need the ingredients, a machine and also a laborer. But we should not extend this idea to the actions of the Supreme Lord, for He can create anything in a moment without that which appears necessary in our own conception. When the Lord appears as an incarnation to fulfill a particular purpose, this does not indicate that He is unable to fulfill it without appearing. He can do anything simply by His will, but by His causeless mercy He appears to be dependent upon His devotees. He appears as the son of Yasodamata not because He is dependent on her care but because He accepts such a role by His causeless mercy. When He appears for the protection of His devotees, He naturally accepts trials and tribulations on their behalf.
In the Bhagavad-gita it is said that the Lord, being equally disposed toward every living being, has no enemies and no friends but He has special affection for a devotee who always thinks of Him in love. Therefore neutrality and partiality are both among the transcendental qualities of the Lord, and they are properly adjusted by His inconceivable energy. The Lord is Parabrahman, or the source of the impersonal Brahma, which is His all-pervading feature of neutrality. In His personal feature, however, as the owner of all transcendental opulences, the Lord displays His partiality by taking the side of His devotees. Partiality, neutrality and all such qualities are present in God; otherwise they could not be experienced in the creation. Since He is the total existence, all things are properly adjusted in the Absolute. In the relative world such qualities are displayed in a perverted manner, and therefore we experience nonduality as a perverted reflection. Because there is no logic to explain how things happen in the realm of spirit, the Lord is sometimes described as being beyond the range of experience. But if we simply accept the Lord's inconceivability, we can then adjust all things in Him. Nondevotees cannot understand the Lord's inconceivable energy, and consequently for them it is said that He is beyond the range of conceivable expression. The author of the Brahma-sutras accepts this fact and says, srutes tu sabda-mulatvat: the Supreme Personality of Godhead, being inconceivable to an ordinary man, can be understood only through the evidence of the Vedic injunctions. The Skanda Purana confirms, acintyah khalu ye bhava na tams tarkena yojayet: "Matters inconceivable to a common man should not be a subject for argument." We find very wonderful qualities even in material jewels and drugs. Indeed, their qualities often appear inconceivable. Therefore if we do not attribute inconceivable potencies to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, we cannot establish His supremacy. It is because of these inconceivable potencies that the glories of the Lord have always been accepted as difficult to understand.
Ignorance and the jugglery of words are very common in human society, but they do not help one understand the inconceivable energies of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. If we accept such ignorance and word jugglery, we cannot accept the Supreme Lord's perfection in six opulences. For example, one of the opulences of the Supreme Lord is complete knowledge. Therefore, how could ignorance be conceivable in Him? Vedic instructions and sensible arguments establish that the Lord's maintaining the cosmic manifestation and simultaneously being indifferent to the activities of its maintenance cannot be contradictory, because of His inconceivable energies. To a person who is always absorbed in the thought of snakes, a rope always appears to be a snake, and similarly to a person bewildered by material qualities and devoid of knowledge of the Absolute, the Supreme Personality of Godhead appears according to diverse bewildered conclusions.
Someone might argue that the Absolute would be affected by duality if He were both all-cognizance (Brahman) and the Personality of Godhead with six opulences in full (Bhagavan). To refute such an argument, the aphorism svarupa-dvayam iksyate declares that in spite of appearances, there is no chance of duality in the Absolute, for He is but one in diverse manifestations. Understanding that the Absolute displays varied pastimes by the influence of His energies at once removes the apparent incongruity of His inconceivably opposite energies. Srimad-Bhagavatam (3.4.16) gives the following description of the inconceivable potency of the Lord:
"Although the Supreme Personality of Godhead has nothing to do, He nevertheless acts; although He is always unborn, He nevertheless takes birth; although He is time, fearful to everyone, He flees Mathura in fear of His enemy to take shelter in a fort; and although He is self-sufficient, He marries 16,000 women. These pastimes seem like bewildering contradictions, even to the most intelligent."
Had these activities of the Lord not been a reality, sages would not have been puzzled by them. Therefore such activities should never be considered imaginary. Whenever the Lord desires, His inconceivable energy (yogamaya) serves Him in creating and performing such pastimes.
The scriptures known as the Pancaratra-sastras are recognized Vedic scriptures that have been accepted by the great acaryas. These scriptures are not products of the modes of passion and ignorance. Learned scholars and brahmanas therefore always refer to them as satvata-samhitas. The original speaker of these scriptures is Narayana, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. This is especially mentioned in the Moksa-dharma (349.68), which is part of the Santi-parva of the Mahabharata. Liberated sages like Narada and Vyasa, who are free from the four defects of conditioned souls, are the propagators of these scriptures. Sri Narada Muni is the original speaker of the Pancaratra-sastra. Srimad-Bhagavatam is also considered a satvata-samhita. Indeed, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu declared, srimad-bhagavatam puranam amalam: "Srimad-Bhagavatam is a spotless Purana." Malicious editors and scholars who attempt to misrepresent the Pancaratra-sastras to refute their regulations are most abominable. In the modern age, such malicious scholars have even commented misleadingly upon the Bhagavad-gita, which was spoken by Krsna, to prove that there is no Krsna. How the Mayavadis have misrepresented the pancaratrika-vidhi will be shown below.
(1) In commenting on Vedanta-sutra 2.2.42, Sripada Sankaracarya has claimed that Sankarsana is a jiva, an ordinary living entity, but there is no evidence in any Vedic scripture that devotees of the Lord have ever said that Sankarsana is an ordinary living entity. He is an infallible plenary expansion of the Supreme Personality of Godhead in the Visnu category, and He is beyond the creation of material nature. He is the original source of the living entities. The Upanisads declare, nityo nityanam cetanas cetananam: "He is the supreme living entity among all the living entities." Therefore He is vibhu-caitanya, the greatest. He is directly the cause of the cosmic manifestation and the infinitesimal living beings. He is the infinite living entity, and ordinary living entities are infinitesimal. Therefore He is never to be considered an ordinary living being, for that would be against the conclusion of the authorized scriptures. The living entities are also beyond the limitations of birth and death. This is the version of the Vedas, and it is accepted by those who follow scriptural injunctions and who have actually descended in the disciplic succession.
(2) In answer to Sankaracarya's commentary on Vedanta-sutra 2.2.43, it must be said that the original Visnu of all the Visnu categories, which are distributed in several ways, is Mula-sankarsana. Mula means "the original." Sankarsana is also Visnu, but from Him all other Visnus expand. This is confirmed in the Brahma-samhita, wherein it is said that just as a flame transferred from another flame acts like the original, so the Visnus who emanate from Mulasankarsana are as good as the original Visnu. One should worship that Supreme Personality of Godhead, Govinda, who thus expands Himself.
(3) In reply to the commentary of Sankaracarya on the forty-fourth aphorism, it may be said that no pure devotees strictly following the principles of Pancaratra will ever accept the statement that all the expansions of Visnu are different identities, for this idea is completely false. Even Sripada Sankaracarya, in his commentary on the forty-second aphorism, has accepted that the Personality of Godhead can automatically expand Himself variously. Therefore his commentary on the forty-second aphorism and his commentary on the forty-fourth aphorism are contradictory. It is a defect of Mayavada commentaries that they make one statement in one place and a contradictory statement in another place as a tactic to refute the Bhagavata school. Thus Mayavadi commentators do not even follow regulative principles. It should be noted that the Bhagavata school accepts the quadruple forms of Narayana, but that does not mean that it accepts many Gods. Devotees know perfectly well that the Absolute Truth, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is one without a second. They are never pantheists, worshipers of many Gods, for this is against the injunction of the Vedas. Devotees completely believe, with strong faith, that Narayana is transcendental and has inconceivable proprietorship of various transcendental potencies. We therefore recommend that scholars consult the Laghu-bhagavatamrta of Srila Rupa Gosvami, where these ideas are explicitly stated. Sripada Sankaracarya has tried to prove that Vasudeva, Sankarsana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha expand through cause and effect. He has compared Them with earth and earthen pots. That is completely ignorant, however, for there is no such thing as cause and effect in Their expansions (nanyad yat sad-asat-param). The Kurma Purana also confirms, deha-dehi-vibhedo 'yam nesvare vidyate kvacit: "There is no difference between body and soul in the Supreme Personality of Godhead." Cause and effect are material. For example, it is seen that a father's body is the cause of a son's body, but the soul is neither cause nor effect. On the spiritual platform there are none of the differences we find in cause and effect. Since all the forms of the Supreme Personality of Godhead are spiritually supreme, They are equally controllers of material nature. Standing on the fourth dimension, They are predominating figures on the transcendental platform. There is no trace of material contamination in Their expansions because material laws cannot influence Them. There is no such rule as cause and effect outside of the material world. Therefore the understanding of cause and effect cannot approach the full, transcendental, complete expansions of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The Vedic literature proves this:
om purnam adah purnam idam
purnat purnam udacyate
purnasya purnam adaya
"The Personality of Godhead is perfect and complete, and because He is completely perfect, all emanations from Him, such as this phenomenal world, are perfectly equipped as complete wholes. Whatever is produced of the complete whole is also complete by itself. Because He is the complete whole, even though so many complete units emanate from Him, He remains the complete balance." (Brhad-aranyaka Upanisad 5.1)
It is most apparent that nondevotees violate the rules and regulations of devotional service to equate the whole cosmic manifestation, which is the external feature of Visnu, with the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is the controller of maya, or with His quadruple expansions. The equalization of maya and spirit, or maya and the Lord, is a sign of atheism. The cosmic creation, which manifests life in forms from Brahma to the ant, is the external feature of the Supreme Lord. It comprises one fourth of the Lord's energy, as confirmed in the Bhagavad-gita (ekamsena sthito jagat). The cosmic manifestation of the illusory energy is material nature, and everything within material nature is made of matter. Therefore, one should not try to compare the expansions of material nature to the catur-vyuha, the quadruple expansions of the Personality of Godhead, but unfortunately the Mayavadi school unreasonably attempts to do this.
(4) To answer Sankaracarya's commentary on Vedanta-sutra 2.2.45, the substance of the transcendental qualities and their spiritual nature is described in the Laghu-bhagavatamrta (Purva 5.208-214) as follows: "Some say that transcendence must be void of all qualities because qualities are manifested only in matter. According to them, all qualities are like temporary, flickering mirages. But this is not acceptable. Since the Supreme Personality of Godhead is absolute, His qualities are nondifferent from Him. His form, name, qualities and everything else pertaining to Him are as spiritual as He is. Every qualitative expansion of the absolute Personality of Godhead is identical with Him. Since the Absolute Truth, the Personality of Godhead, is the reservoir of all pleasure, all the transcendental qualities that expand from Him are also reservoirs of pleasure. This is confirmed in the scripture known as Brahma-tarka, which states that the Supreme Lord Hari is qualified by Himself, and therefore Visnu and His pure devotees and their transcendental qualities cannot be different from their persons. In the Visnu Purana Lord Visnu is worshiped in the following words: 'Let the Supreme Personality of Godhead be merciful toward us. His existence is never infected by material qualities.' In the same Visnu Purana it is also said that all the qualities attributed to the Supreme Lord, such as knowledge, opulence, beauty, strength and influence, are known to be nondifferent from Him. This is also confirmed in the Padma Purana, which explains that whenever the Supreme Lord is described as having no qualities, this should be understood to indicate that He is devoid of material qualities. In the First Chapter of Srimad-Bhagavatam (1.16.29) it is said: 'O Dharma, protector of religious principles, all noble and sublime qualities are eternally manifested in the person of Krsna, and devotees and transcendentalists who aspire to become faithful also desire to possess such transcendental qualities.' " It is therefore to be understood that Lord Sri Krsna, the transcendental form of absolute bliss, is the fountainhead of all pleasurable transcendental qualities and inconceivable potencies. In this connection we may recommend references to Srimad-Bhagavatam, Third Canto, Chapter Twenty-Six, verses 21, 25, 27 and 28.
Sripada Ramanujacarya has also refuted the arguments of Sankara in his own commentary on the Vedanta-sutra, which is known as the Sri-bhasya: "Sripada Sankaracarya has tried to equate the Pancaratras with the philosophy of the atheist Kapila, and thus he has tried to prove that the Pancaratras contradict the Vedic injunctions. The Pancaratras state that the personality of jiva called Sankarsana has emerged from Vasudeva, the supreme cause of all causes, that Pradyumna, the mind, has come from Sankarsana, and that Aniruddha, the ego, has come from Pradyumna. But one cannot say that the living entity (jiva) takes birth or is created, for such a statement is against the injunction of the Vedas. As stated in the Katha Upanisad (2.18), living entities, as individual spiritual souls, can have neither birth nor death. All Vedic literature declares that the living entities are eternal. Therefore when it is said that Sankarsana is jiva, this indicates that He is the predominating Deity of the living entities. Similarly, Pradyumna is the predominating Deity of the mind, and Aniruddha is the predominating Deity of the ego.
"It has been said that Pradyumna, the mind, was produced from Sankarsana. But if Sankarsana were a living entity, this could not be accepted, because a living entity cannot be the cause of the mind. The Vedic injunctions state that everything--including life, mind and the senses--comes from the Supreme Personality of Godhead. It is impossible for the mind to be produced by a living entity, for the Vedas state that everything comes from the Absolute Truth, the Supreme Lord.
"Sankarsana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha have all the potent features of the absolute Personality of Godhead, according to the revealed scriptures, which contain undeniable facts that no one can refute. Therefore these quadruple forms are never to be considered ordinary living beings. Each of Them is a plenary expansion of the Absolute Godhead, and thus each is identical with the Supreme Lord in knowledge, opulence, energy, influence, prowess and potencies. The evidence of Pancaratra cannot be neglected. Only untrained persons who have not genuinely studied the Pancaratras think that the Pancaratras contradict the srutis regarding the birth or beginning of the living entity. In this connection, we must accept the verdict of Srimad-Bhagavatam, which says: 'The absolute Personality of Godhead, who is known as Vasudeva and who is very affectionate toward His surrendered devotees, expands Himself in quadruple forms who are subordinate to Him and at the same time identical with Him in all respects.' The Pauskara-samhita states: 'The scriptures that recommend that brahmanas worship the quadruple forms of the Supreme Personality of Godhead are called agamas [authorized works of Vedic literature].' In all Vaisnava literature it is said that worshiping these quadruple forms is as good as worshiping the Supreme Personality of Godhead Vasudeva, who in His different expansions, complete in six opulences, can accept offerings from His devotees of the results of their prescribed duties. Worshiping the expansions for pastimes, such as Nrsimha, Rama, Sesa and Kurma, promotes one to the worship of the Sankarsana quadruple. From that position one is raised to the platform of worshiping Vasudeva, the Supreme Brahman. In the Pauskara-samhita it is said: 'If one fully worships according to the regulative principles, one can attain the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Vasudeva.' It is to be accepted that Sankarsana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha are as good as Lord Vasudeva, for They all have inconceivable power and can accept transcendental forms like Vasudeva. Sankarsana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha are never born, but They can manifest Themselves in various incarnations before the eyes of pure devotees. This is the conclusion of all Vedic literature. That the Lord can manifest Himself before His devotees by His inconceivable power is not against the teaching of the Pancaratra. Since Sankarsana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha are actually the predominating Deities of all living entities, the total mind and the total ego, the descriptions of Sankarsana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha as jiva, mind and ego are never contradictory to the statements of the scriptures. These names identify these Deities, just as the terms 'sky' and 'light' sometimes identify the Absolute Brahman.
"The scriptures completely deny the birth or production of the living entity. In the Parama-samhita it is described that material nature, which is used for others' purposes, is factually inert and always subject to transformation. The field of material nature is the arena of the activities of fruitive actors, and since the material field is externally related with the Supreme Personality of Godhead, it is also eternal. In every samhita, the jiva (living entity) has been accepted as eternal, and in the Pancaratra the birth of the jiva is completely denied. Anything that is produced must also be annihilated. Therefore if we accept the birth of the living entity, we also have to accept his annihilation. But since the Vedic literature says that the living entity is eternal, one should not think the living being to be produced at a certain time. In the beginning of the Parama-samhita it is definitely stated that the face of material nature is constantly changeable. Therefore 'beginning,' 'annihilation' and all such terms are applicable only in the material nature.
"Considering all these points, one should understand that Sankaracarya's statement that Sankarsana is born as a jiva is completely against the Vedic statements. His assertions are completely refuted by the above arguments. In this connection the commentary of Sridhara Svami on Srimad-Bhagavatam (3.1.34) is very helpful."
For a detailed refutation of Sankaracarya's arguments to prove Sankarsana an ordinary living being, one may refer to Srimat Sudarsanacarya's commentary on Sri-bhasya, which is known as the Sruta-prakasika.
The original quadruple forms Krsna, Baladeva, Pradyumna and Aniruddha expand into another quadruple, which is present in the Vaikuntha planets of the spiritual sky. Therefore the quadruple forms in the spiritual sky are the second manifestation of the original quadruple in Dvaraka. As explained above, Vasudeva, Sankarsana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha are all changeless, transcendental plenary expansions of the Supreme Lord who have no relation to the material modes. The Sankarsana form in the second quadruple is not only a representation of Balarama but also the original cause of the Causal Ocean, where Karanodakasayi Visnu lies asleep, breathing out the seeds of innumerable universes.
In the spiritual sky there is a spiritual creative energy technically called suddha-sattva, which is a pure spiritual energy that sustains all the Vaikuntha planets with the full opulences of knowledge, wealth, prowess, etc. All these actions of suddha-sattva display the potencies of Maha-sankarsana, who is the ultimate reservoir of all individual living entities who are suffering in the material world. When the cosmic creation is annihilated, the living entities, who are indestructible by nature, rest in the body of Maha-sankarsana. Sankarsana is therefore sometimes called the total jiva. As spiritual sparks, the living entities have the tendency to be inactive in the association of material energy, just as sparks of a fire have the tendency to be extinguished as soon as they leave the fire. The spiritual nature of the living being can be rekindled, however, in association with the Supreme Being. Because the living being can appear either in matter or in spirit, the jiva is called the marginal potency.
Sankarsana is the origin of Karana Visnu, who is the original form who creates the universes, and that Sankarsana is but a plenary expansion of Sri Nityananda Rama.
tanha ye ramera rupa----maha-sankarsana
cic-chakti-asraya tinho, karanera karana
tanha--there; ye--which; ramera rupa--the personal feature of Balarama; maha-sankarsana--Maha-sankarsana; cit-sakti-asraya--the shelter of the spiritual potency; tinho--He; karanera karana--the cause of all causes.
There the personal feature of Balarama called Maha-sankarsana is the shelter of the spiritual energy. He is the primary cause, the cause of all causes.
cic-chakti-vilasa eka----'suddha-sattva' nama
suddha-sattva-maya yata vaikunthadi-dhama
cit-sakti-vilasa--pastimes in the spiritual energy; eka--one; suddha-sattva nama--named suddha-sattva, pure existence, free from material contamination; suddha-sattva-maya--of purely spiritual existence; yata--all; vaikuntha-adi-dhama--the spiritual planets, known as Vaikunthas.
One variety of the pastimes of the spiritual energy is described as pure goodness [visuddha-sattva]. It comprises all the abodes of Vaikuntha.
sad-vidhaisvarya tanha sakala cinmaya
sankarsanera vibhuti saba, janiha niscaya
sat-vidha-aisvarya--six kinds of opulences; tanha--there; sakala cit-maya--everything spiritual; sankarsanera--of Lord Sankarsana; vibhuti saba--all different opulences; janiha niscaya--know certainly.
The six attributes are all spiritual. Know for certain that they are all manifestations of the opulence of Sankarsana.
'jiva'-nama tatasthakhya eka sakti haya
maha-sankarsana----saba jivera asraya
jiva--the living entity; nama--named; tata-stha-akhya--known as the marginal potency; eka--one; sakti--energy; haya--is; maha-sankarsana--of the name Maha-sankarsana; saba--all; jivera--of living entities; asraya--the shelter.
There is one marginal potency, known as the jiva. Maha-sankarsana is the shelter of all jivas.
yanha haite visvotpatti, yanhate pralaya
sei purusera sankarsana samasraya
yanha haite--from whom; visva-utpatti--the creation of the material cosmic manifestation; yanhate--in whom; pralaya--merging; sei purusera--of that Supreme Personality of Godhead; sankarsana--of the name Sankarsana; samasraya--the original shelter.
Sankarsana is the original shelter of the purusa, from whom this world is created and in whom it is dissolved.
sarva-asraya--the shelter of everything; sarva-adbhuta--wonderful in every respect; aisvarya--opulences; apara--unfathomed; ananta--Ananta Sesa; kahite nare--cannot speak; mahima yanhara--the glories of whom.
He [Sankarsana] is the shelter of everything. He is wonderful in every respect, and His opulences are infinite. Even Ananta cannot describe His glory.
turiya, visuddha-sattva, 'sankarsana' nama
tinho yanra amsa, sei nityananda-rama
turiya--transcendental; visuddha-sattva--pure existence; sankarsana nama--named Sankarsana; tinho yanra amsa--of whom that Sankarsana is also a partial expansion; sei nityananda-rama--that person is known as Balarama or Nityananda.
That Sankarsana, who is transcendental pure goodness, is a partial expansion of Nityananda Balarama.
astama--eighth; slokera--of the verse; kaila--I have done; sanksepe--in brief; vivarana--description; navama--the ninth; slokera--of the verse; artha--the meaning; suna--please hear; diya mana--with mental attention.
I have briefly explained the eighth verse. Now please listen with attention as I explain the ninth verse.
sete saksat karanambhodhi-madhye
yasyaikamsah sri-puman adi-devas
tam sri-nityananda-ramam prapadye
maya-bharta--the master of the illusory energy; aja-anda-sangha--of the multitude of universes; asraya--the shelter; angah--whose body; sete--He lies; saksat--directly; karana-ambhodhi-madhye--in the midst of the Causal Ocean; yasya--whose; eka-amsah--one portion; sri-puman--the Supreme Person; adi-devah--the original purusa incarnation; tam--to Him; sri-nityananda-ramam--to Lord Balarama in the form of Lord Nityananda; prapadye--I surrender.
I offer my full obeisances unto the feet of Sri Nityananda Rama, whose partial representation called Karanodakasayi Visnu, lying on the Karana Ocean, is the original purusa, the master of the illusory energy, and the shelter of all the universes.
vaikuntha-bahire yei jyotir-maya dhama
tahara bahire 'karanarnava' nama
vaikuntha-bahire--outside the Vaikuntha planets; yei--that; jyotih-maya dhama--impersonal Brahman effulgence; tahara bahire--outside that effulgence; karana-arnava nama--an ocean called Karana.
Outside the Vaikuntha planets is the impersonal Brahman effulgence, and beyond that effulgence is the Karana Ocean, or Causal Ocean.
The impersonal glowing effulgence known as impersonal Brahman is the outer space of the Vaikuntha planets in the spiritual sky. Beyond that impersonal Brahman is the great Causal Ocean, which lies between the material and spiritual skies. The material nature is a by-product of this Causal Ocean.
Karanodakasayi Visnu, who lies on the Causal Ocean, creates the universes merely by glancing upon material nature. Therefore Krsna personally has nothing to do with the material creation. The Bhagavad-gita confirms that the Lord glances over material nature and thus she produces the many material universes. Neither Krsna in Goloka nor Narayana in Vaikuntha comes directly in contact with the material creation. They are completely aloof from the material energy.
It is the function of Maha-sankarsana in the form of Karanodakasayi Visnu to glance over the material creation, which is situated beyond the limits of the Causal Ocean. Material nature is connected with the Personality of Godhead by His glance over her and nothing more. It is said that she is impregnated by the energy of His glance. The material energy, maya, never even touches the Causal Ocean, for the Lord's glance focuses upon her from a great distance away.
The glancing power of the Lord agitates the entire cosmic energy, and thus its actions begin at once. This indicates that matter, however powerful she may be, has no power by herself. Her activity begins by the grace of the Lord, and then the entire cosmic creation is manifested in a systematic way. The example of a woman's conception can help us understand this subject to a certain extent. The mother is passive, but the father puts his energy within the mother, and thus she conceives. She supplies the ingredients for the birth of the child in her womb. Similarly, the Lord activates material nature, which then supplies the ingredients for cosmic development.
Material nature has two different phases. The aspect called pradhana supplies the material ingredients for cosmic development, and the aspect called maya causes the manifestation of her ingredients, which are temporary, like foam in the ocean. In reality, the temporary manifestations of material nature are originally caused by the spiritual glance of the Lord. The Personality of Godhead is the direct, or remote, cause of creation, and material nature is the indirect, or immediate, cause. Materialistic scientists, puffed-up by the magical changes their so-called inventions have brought about, cannot see the real potency of Godhead behind matter. Therefore the jugglery of science is gradually leading people to a godless civilization at the cost of the goal of human life. Having missed the goal of life, materialists run after self-sufficiency, not knowing that material nature is already self-sufficient by the grace of God. Thus creating a colossal hoax in the name of civilization, they create an imbalance in the natural self-sufficiency of material nature.
To think of material nature as all in all, not knowing the original cause, is ignorance. Lord Caitanya appeared in order to dissipate this darkness of ignorance by igniting the spark of spiritual life that can, by His causeless mercy, enlighten the entire world.
To explain how maya acts by Krsna's power, the author of Sri Caitanya-caritamrta gives the example that an iron rod in a fire, although it is not fire, becomes red-hot and acts like fire itself. Similarly, all the actions and reactions of material nature are not actually the work of material nature but are actions and reactions of the energy of the Supreme Lord manifested through matter. The power of electricity is transmitted through the medium of copper, but this does not mean that the copper is electricity. The power is generated at a powerhouse under the control of an expert living being. Similarly, behind all the jugglery of the natural laws is a great living being, who is a person like the mechanical engineer in the powerhouse. It is by His intelligence that the entire cosmic creation moves in a systematic way.
The modes of nature that directly cause material actions are also originally activated by Narayana. A simple example will explain how this is so: When a potter manufactures a pot from clay, the potter's wheel, his tools and the clay are the immediate causes of the pot, but the potter is the chief cause. Similarly, Narayana is the chief cause of all material creations, and the material energy supplies the ingredients of matter. Therefore without Narayana, all other causes are useless, just as the potter's wheel and tools are useless without the potter himself. Since materialistic scientists ignore the Personality of Godhead, it is as if they were concerned with the potter's wheel and its rotation, the potter's tools and the ingredients for the pots, but had no knowledge of the potter himself. Therefore modern science has created an imperfect, godless civilization that is in gross ignorance of the ultimate cause. Scientific advancement should have a great goal to attain, and that great goal should be the Personality of Godhead. In the Bhagavad-gita it is said that after conducting research for many, many births, great men of knowledge who stress the importance of experimental thought can know the Personality of Godhead, who is the cause of all causes. When one knows Him perfectly, one surrenders unto Him and then becomes a mahatma.
The water of the Karana Ocean, which is the original cause, is therefore spiritual. The sacred Ganges, which is but a drop of it, purifies the fallen souls.
sei ta' karanarnave sei sankarsana
apanara eka amse karena sayana
sei--that; ta'--certainly; karana-arnave--in the ocean of cause, or Causal Ocean; sei--that; sankarsana--Lord Sankarsana; apanara--of His own; eka--one; amse--by the part; karena sayana--lies down.
In that ocean lies one plenary portion of Lord Sankarsana.
mahat-srasta purusa, tinho jagat-karana
adya-avatara kare mayaya iksana
mahat-srasta--the creator of the total material energy; purusa--the person; tinho--He; jagat-karana--the cause of the material cosmic manifestation; adya--original; avatara--incarnation; kare--does; mayaya--over the material energy; iksana--glance.
He is known as the first purusa, the creator of the total material energy. He, the cause of the universes, the first incarnation, casts His glance over maya.
Maya-sakti resides outside the Causal Ocean. Maya cannot touch its waters.
sei ta' mayara dui-vidha avasthiti
jagatera upadana 'pradhana', prakrti
sei--that; ta'--certainly; mayara--of the material energy; dui-vidha--two varieties; avasthiti--existence; jagatera--of the material world; upadana--the ingredients; pradhana--named pradhana; prakrti--material nature.
Maya has two varieties of existence. One is called pradhana or prakrti. It supplies the ingredients of the material world.
Maya, the external energy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is divided into two parts. Maya is the cause and the ingredient of the cosmic manifestation. As the cause of the cosmic manifestation she is known as maya, and as the agent supplying the ingredients of the cosmic manifestation she is known as pradhana. An explicit description of these divisions of external energy is given in Srimad-Bhagavatam (11.24.1-4). Elsewhere in Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.63.26) the ingredients and cause of the material cosmic manifestation are described as follows:
"O my Lord! Time, activity, providence and nature are four parts of the causal aspect [maya] of the external energy. The conditioned vital force, the subtle material ingredients called the dravya, and material nature (which is the field of activity where the false ego acts as the soul), as well as the eleven senses and five elements (earth, water, fire, air and ether), which are the sixteen ingredients of the body--these are the ingredient aspect of maya. The body is generated from activity, and activity is generated from the body, just as a tree is generated from a seed that is generated from a tree. This reciprocal cause and effect is called maya. My dear Lord, You can save me from this cycle of cause and effect. I worship Your lotus feet."
Although the living entity is primarily related to the causal portion of maya, he is nevertheless conducted by the ingredients of maya. Three forces work in the causal portion of maya: knowledge, desire and activity. The material ingredients are a manifestation of maya as pradhana. In other words, when the three qualities of maya are in a dormant stage, they exist as prakrti, avyakta or pradhana. The word avyakta, referring to the nonmanifest, is another name of pradhana. In the avyakta stage, material nature is without varieties. Varieties are manifested by the pradhana portion of maya. The word pradhana is therefore more important than avyakta or prakrti.
jagat-karana nahe prakrti jada-rupa
sakti sancariya tare krsna kare krpa
jagat--of the material world; karana--the cause; nahe--cannot be; prakrti--the material nature; jada-rupa--dull, without action; sakti--energy; sancariya--infusing; tare--unto the dull material nature; krsna--Lord Krsna; kare--shows; krpa--mercy.
Because prakrti is dull and inert, it cannot actually be the cause of the material world. But Lord Krsna shows His mercy by infusing His energy into the dull, inert material nature.
krsna-saktye prakrti haya gauna karana
agni-saktye lauha yaiche karaye jarana
krsna-saktye--by the energy of Krsna; prakrti--the material nature; haya--becomes; gauna--indirect; karana--cause; agni-saktye--by the energy of fire; lauha--iron; yaiche--just as; karaye--becomes; jarana--powerful or red-hot.
Thus prakrti, by the energy of Lord Krsna, becomes the secondary cause, just as iron becomes red-hot by the energy of fire.
ataeva--therefore; krsna--Lord Krsna; mula--original; jagat-karana--the cause of the cosmic manifestation; prakrti--material nature; karana--cause; yaiche--exactly like; aja-gala-stana--nipples on the neck of a goat.
Therefore Lord Krsna is the original cause of the cosmic manifestation. Prakrti is like the nipples on the neck of a goat, for they cannot give any milk.
The external energy, composed of pradhana or prakrti as the ingredient-supplying portion and maya as the causal portion, is known as maya-sakti. Inert material nature is not the actual cause of the material manifestation, for Karanarnavasayi, Maha-Visnu, the plenary expansion of Krsna, activates all the ingredients. It is in this way that material nature has the power to supply the ingredients. The example given is that iron has no power to heat or burn, but after coming in contact with fire the iron becomes red-hot and can then diffuse heat and burn other things. Material nature is like iron, for it has no independence to act without the touch of Visnu, who is compared to fire. Lord Visnu activates material nature by the power of His glance, and then the ironlike material nature becomes a material-supplying agent just as iron made red-hot becomes a burning agent. Material nature cannot independently become an agent for supplying the material ingredients. This is more clearly explained by Sri Kapiladeva, an incarnation of Godhead, in Srimad-Bhagavatam (3.28.40):
dhumad vapi sva-sambhavat
yathagnih prthag ulmukat
"Although smoke, flaming wood, and sparks are all considered together as ingredients of a fire, the flaming wood is nevertheless different from the fire, and the smoke is different from the flaming wood."
The material elements (earth, water, fire, etc.) are like smoke, the living entities are like sparks, and material nature as pradhana is like the flaming wood. But all of them together are recipients of power from the Supreme Personality of Godhead and are thus able to manifest their individual capacities. In other words, the Supreme Personality of Godhead is the origin of all manifestations. Material nature can supply only when it is activated by the glance of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
Just as a woman can deliver a child after being impregnated by the semen of a man, so material nature can supply the material elements after being glanced upon by Maha-Visnu. Therefore pradhana cannot be independent of the superintendence of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. This is confirmed in the Bhagavad-gita (9.10): mayadhyaksena prakrtih suyate sa-caracaram. Prakrti, the total material energy, works under the superintendence of the Lord. The original source of the material elements is Krsna. Therefore the attempt of the atheistic Sankhya philosophers to consider material nature the source of these elements, forgetting Krsna, is useless, like trying to get milk from the nipplelike bumps of skin hanging on the neck of a goat.
maya-amse--to the other portion of the material nature; kahi--I say; tare--unto her; nimitta-karana--immediate cause; seha nahe--that cannot be; yate--because; karta-hetu--the original cause; narayana--Lord Narayana.
The maya aspect of material nature is the immediate cause of the cosmic manifestation. But it also cannot be the real cause, for the original cause is Lord Narayana.
ghatera--of the earthen pot; nimitta-hetu--original cause; yaiche--just as; kumbhakara--the potter; taiche--similarly; jagatera karta--the creator of the material world; purusa-avatara--the purusa incarnation, or Karanarnavasayi Visnu.
Just as the original cause of an earthen pot is the potter, so the creator of the material world is the first purusa incarnation [Karanarnavasayi Visnu].
krsna----karta, maya tanra karena sahaya
ghatera karana----cakra-dandadi upaya
krsna--Lord Krsna; karta--the creator; maya--material energy; tanra--His; karena--does; sahaya--assistance; ghatera karana--the cause of the earthen pot; cakra-danda-adi--the wheel, the rod, and so on; upaya--instruments.
Lord Krsna is the creator, and maya only helps Him as an instrument, just like the potter's wheel and other instruments, which are the instrumental causes of a pot.
dura haite purusa kare mayate avadhana
jiva-rupa virya tate karena adhana
dura haite--from a distance; purusa--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; kare--does; mayate--unto the material energy; avadhana--glancing over; jiva-rupa--the living entities; virya--seed; tate--in her; karena--does; adhana--impregnation.
The first purusa casts His glance at maya from a distance, and thus He impregnates her with the seed of life in the form of the living entities.
eka angabhase kare mayate milana
maya haite janme tabe brahmandera gana
eka--one; anga-abhase--bodily reflection; kare--does; mayate--in the material energy; milana--mixture; maya--the material energy; haite--from; janme--grows; tabe--then; brahma-andera gana--the groups of universes.
The reflected rays of His body mix with maya, and thus maya gives birth to myriads of universes.
The Vedic conclusion is that the cosmic manifestation visible to the eyes of the conditioned soul is caused by the Absolute Truth, the Personality of Godhead, through the exertion of His specific energies, although in the conclusion of atheistic deliberations this manifested cosmic exhibition is attributed to material nature. The energy of the Absolute Truth is exhibited in three ways: spiritual, material and marginal. The Absolute Truth is identical with His spiritual energy. Only when contacted by the spiritual energy can the material energy work and the temporary material manifestations thus appear active. In the conditioned state the living entities of the marginal energy are a mixture of spiritual and material energies. The marginal energy is originally under the control of the spiritual energy, but, under the control of the material energy, the living entities have been wandering in forgetfulness within the material world since time immemorial.
The conditioned state is caused by misuse of the individual independence of the spiritual platform, for this separates the living entity from the association of the spiritual energy. But when the living entity is enlightened by the grace of the Supreme Lord or His pure devotee and becomes inclined to revive his original state of loving service, he is on the most auspicious platform of eternal bliss and knowledge. The marginal jiva, or living entity, misuses his independence and becomes averse to the eternal service attitude when he independently thinks he is not energy but the energetic. This misconception of his own existence leads him to the attitude of lording it over material nature.
Material nature appears to be just the opposite of the spiritual energy. The fact is that the material energy can work only when in contact with the spiritual energy. Originally the energy of Krsna is spiritual, but it works in diverse ways, like electrical energy, which can exhibit the functions of refrigerating or heating through its manifestations in different ways. The material energy is spiritual energy covered by a cloud of illusion, or maya. Therefore, the material energy is not self-sufficient in working. Krsna invests His spiritual energy into material energy, and then it can act, just as iron can act like fire after being heated by fire. The material energy can act only when empowered by the spiritual energy.
When covered by the cloud of material energy, the living entity, who is also a spiritual energy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, forgets about the activities of the spiritual energy and considers all that happens in the material manifestation to be wonderful. But a person who is engaged in devotional service in full Krsna consciousness and who is therefore already situated in the spiritual energy can understand that the material energy has no independent powers: whatever actions are going on are due to the help of the spiritual energy. The material energy, which is a perverted form of the spiritual energy, presents everything pervertedly, thus causing misconceptions and duality. Material scientists and philosophers conditioned by the spell of material nature suppose that material energy acts automatically, and therefore they are frustrated, like an illusioned person who tries to get milk from the nipplelike bunches of skin on the neck of a goat. As there is no possibility of getting milk from these bunches of skin, there is similarly no possibility that anyone will be successful in understanding the original cause of creation by forwarding theories produced by the material energy. Such an attempt is a manifestation of ignorance.
The material energy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead is called maya, or illusion, because in two capacities (by supplying the material elements and by causing the material manifestation) it makes the conditioned soul unable to understand the real truth of creation. When a living entity is liberated, however, from the conditioned life of matter, he can understand the two different activities of material nature, namely covering and bewildering.
The origin of creation is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. As confirmed in the Bhagavad-gita (9.10), the cosmic manifestation is working under the direction of the Supreme Lord, who invests the material energy with three material qualities. Agitated by these qualities, the elements supplied by the material energy produce varieties of things, just as an artist produces varieties of pictures by mixing the three colors red, yellow and blue. Yellow represents the quality of goodness, red represents passion, and blue represents ignorance. Therefore the colorful material creation is but an interaction of these three qualities, represented in eighty-one varieties of mixtures (3 x 3 equaling 9, 9 x 9 thus equaling 81). Deluded by material energy, the conditioned soul, enamored by these eighty-one varieties of manifestation, wants to lord it over material energy, just as a moth wants to enjoy a fire. This illusion is the net result of the conditioned soul's forgetfulness of his eternal relationship with the Supreme personality of Godhead. When conditioned, the soul is impelled by the material energy to engage in sense gratification, whereas one enlightened by the spiritual energy engages himself in the service of the Supreme Lord in his eternal relationship.
Krsna is the original cause of the spiritual world, and He is the covered cause of the material manifestation. He is also the original cause of the marginal potency, the living entities. He is both the leader and maintainer of the living entities, who are called the marginal potency because they can act under the protection of the spiritual energy or under the cover of the material energy. With the help of the spiritual energy we can understand that independence is visible only in Krsna, who by His inconceivable energy is able to act in any way He likes.
The Supreme Personality of Godhead is the Absolute Whole, and the living entities are parts of the Absolute Whole. This relationship of the Supreme Personality of Godhead and the living entities is eternal. One should never mistakenly think that the spiritual whole can be divided into small parts by the small material energy. The Bhagavad-gita does not support this Mayavada theory. Rather, it clearly states that the living entities are eternally small fragments of the supreme spiritual whole. As a part can never be equal with the whole, so a living entity, as a minute fragment of the spiritual whole, cannot be equal at any time to the Supreme Whole, the absolute Personality of Godhead. Although the Supreme Lord and the living entities are quantitatively related as the whole and the parts, the parts are nevertheless qualitatively one with the whole. Thus the living entities, although always qualitatively one with the Supreme Lord, are in a relative position. The Supreme Personality of Godhead is the controller of everything, and the living entities are always controlled, either by the spiritual energy or by the material energy. Therefore a living entity can never become the controller of material or spiritual energies. The natural position of the living being is always as a subordinate of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. When one agrees to act in such a position, he attains perfection in life, but if one rebels against this principle, he is in the conditioned state.
aganya, ananta yata anda-sannivesa
tata-rupe purusa kare sabate prakasa
aganya--innumerable; ananta--unlimited; yata--all; anda--universes; sannivesa--groups; tata-rupe--in as many forms; purusa--the Lord; kare--does; sabate--in every one of them; prakasa--manifestation.
The purusa enters each and every one of the countless universes. He manifests Himself in as many separate forms as there are universes.
purusa-nasate yabe bahiraya svasa
nisvasa sahite haya brahmanda-prakasa
purusa-nasate--in the nostrils of the Lord; yabe--when; bahiraya--expels; svasa--breath; nisvasa sahite--with that exhalation; haya--there is; brahmanda-prakasa--manifestation of universes.
When the purusa exhales, the universes become manifest with each outward breath.
punarapi--thereafter; svasa--breath; yabe--when; pravese--enters; antare--within; svasa-saha--with that inhaled breath; brahmanda--universes; paise--enter; purusa-sarire--within the body of the Lord.
Thereafter, when He inhales, all the universes again enter His body.
In His form as Karanodakasayi Visnu the Lord impregnates material nature by His glance. The transcendental molecules of that glance are particles of spirit, or spiritual atoms, which appear in different species of life according to the seeds of their individual karma from the previous cosmic manifestation. And the Lord Himself, by His partial representation, creates a body of innumerable universes and again enters each of those universes as Garbhodakasayi Visnu. His coming in contact with maya is explained in the Bhagavad-gita by a comparison between air and the sky. The sky enters everything material, yet it is far away from us.
gavaksera randhre yena trasarenu cale
purusera loma-kupe brahmandera jale
gavaksera--of windows of a room; randhre--within the holes; yena--like; trasarenu--six atoms together; cale--moves; purusera--of the Lord; loma-kupe--in the holes of the hair; brahmandera--of universes; jale--a network.
Just as atomic particles of dust pass through the openings of a window, so the networks of universes pass through the pores of the skin of the purusa.
jivanti loma-vila-ja jagad-anda-nathah
visnur mahan sa iha yasya kala-viseso
govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami
yasya--whose; eka--one; nisvasita--of breath; kalam--time; atha--thus; avalambya--taking shelter of; jivanti--live; loma-vila-jah--grown from the hair holes; jagat-anda-nathah--the masters of the universes (the Brahmas); visnuh mahan--the Supreme Lord, Maha-Visnu; sah--that; iha--here; yasya--whose; kala-visesah--particular plenary portion or expansion; govindam--Lord Govinda; adi-purusam--the original person; tam--Him; aham--I; bhajami--worship.
"The Brahmas and other lords of the mundane worlds appear from the pores of Maha-Visnu and remain alive for the duration of His one exhalation. I adore the primeval Lord, Govinda, of whom Maha-Visnu is a portion of a plenary portion."
This description of the Lord's creative energy is from the Brahma-samhita (5.48), which Lord Brahma compiled after his personal realization. When Maha-Visnu exhales, the spiritual seeds of the universes emanate from Him in the form of molecular particles like those that are visible, three times the size of an atom, when sunlight is diffused through a small hole. In these days of atomic research it will be a worthwhile engagement for atomic scientists to learn from this statement how the entire creation develops from the spiritual atoms emanating from the body of the Lord.
vatadhva-roma-vivarasya ca te mahitvam
kva--where; aham--I; tamah--material nature; mahat--the total material energy; aham--false ego; kha--ether; cara--air; agni--fire; vah--water; bhu--earth; samvestita--surrounded by; anda-ghata--a potlike universe; sapta-vitasti--seven vitastis; kayah--body; kva--where; idrk--such; vidha--like; aviganita--unlimited; anda--universes; para-anu-carya--moving like the atomic dust; vata-adhva--air holes; roma--of hair on the body; vivarasya--of the holes; ca--also; te--Your; mahitvam--greatness.
"Where am I, a small creature of seven spans the measure of my own hand? I am enclosed in the universe composed of material nature, the total material energy, false ego, ether, air, water and earth. And what is Your glory? Unlimited universes pass through the pores of Your body just like particles of dust passing through the opening of a window."
When Lord Brahma, after having stolen all Krsna's cows and cowherd boys, returned and saw that the cows and boys were still roaming with Krsna, he offered this prayer (Bhag. 10.14.11) in his defeat. A conditioned soul, even one so great as Brahma, who manages the affairs of the entire universe, cannot compare to the Personality of Godhead, for He can produce numberless universes simply by the spiritual rays emanating from the pores of His body. Material scientists should take lessons from the utterances of Sri Brahma regarding our insignificance in comparison to God. In these prayers of Brahma there is much to learn for those who are falsely puffed up by the accumulation of power.
amsera amsa yei, 'kala' tara nama
govindera pratimurti sri-balarama
amsera--of the part; amsa--part; yei--that which; kala--a kala, or part of the plenary portion; tara--its; nama--name; govindera--of Lord Govinda; prati-murti--counterform; sri-balarama--Lord Balarama.
A part of a part of a whole is called a kala. Sri Balarama is the counterform of Lord Govinda.
tanra eka svarupa----sri-maha-sankarsana
tanra amsa 'purusa' haya kalate ganana
tanra--His; eka--one; svarupa--manifestation; sri-maha-sankarsana--the great Lord Maha-sankarsana; tanra--His; amsa--part; purusa--the Maha-Visnu incarnation; haya--is; kalate ganana--counted as a kala.
Balarama's own expansion is called Maha-Sankarsana, and His fragment, the purusa, is counted as a kala, or a part of a plenary portion.
yanhake ta' kala kahi, tinho maha-visnu
maha-purusavatari tenho sarva-jisnu
yanhake--unto whom; ta'--certainly; kala kahi--I say kala; tinho--He; maha-visnu--Lord Maha-Visnu; maha-purusavatari--Maha-Visnu, the source of other purusa incarnations; tenho--He; sarva--jisnu--all-pervading.
I say that this kala is Maha-Visnu. He is the Maha-purusa, who is the source of the other purusas and who is all-pervading.
garbhoda-ksiroda-sayi donhe 'purusa' nama
sei dui, yanra amsa,----visnu, visva-dhama
garbha-uda--in the ocean known as Garbhodaka within the universe; ksira-uda-sayi--one who lies in the ocean of milk; donhe--both of Them; purusa nama--known as purusa, Lord Visnu; sei--those; dui--two; yanra amsa--whose plenary portions; visnu visva-dhama--Lord Visnu, the abode of the total universes.
Garbhodasayi and Ksirodasayi are both called purusas. They are plenary portions of Karanodasayi Visnu, the first purusa, who is the abode of all the universes.
The symptoms of the purusa are described in Laghu-bhagavatamrta. While describing the incarnations of the Supreme personality of Godhead, the author has quoted from the Visnu Purana (6.8.59), where it is said: "Let me offer my respectful obeisances unto Purusottama, Lord Krsna, who is always free from the contamination of the six material dualities; whose plenary expansion, Maha-Visnu, glances over matter to create the cosmic manifestation; who expands Himself in various transcendental forms, all of which are one and the same; who is the master of all living entities; who is always free and liberated from the contamination of material energy; and who, when He appears in this material world, seems one of us, although He has an eternally spiritual, blissful, transcendental form." In summarizing this statement, Rupa Gosvami has concluded that the plenary expansion of the Supreme Personality of Godhead who acts in cooperation with the material energy is called the purusa.
visnos tu trini rupani
purusakhyany atho viduh
ekam tu mahatah srastr
dvitiyam tv anda-samsthitam
tani jnatva vimucyate
visnoh--of Lord Visnu; tu--certainly; trini--three; rupani--forms; purusa-akhyani--celebrated as the purusa; atho--how; viduh--they know; ekam--one of them; tu--but; mahatah srastr--the creator of the total material energy; dvitiyam--the second; tu--but; anda-samsthitam--situated within the universe; trtiyam--the third; sarva-bhuta-stham--within the hearts of all living entities; tani--these three; jnatva--knowing; vimucyate--one becomes liberated.
"Visnu has three forms called purusas. The first, Maha-Visnu, is the creator of the total material energy [mahat], the second is Garbhodasayi, who is situated within each universe, and the third is Ksirodasayi, who lives in the heart of every living being. He who knows these three becomes liberated from the clutches of maya."
This verse appears in the Laghu-bhagavatamrta (Purva 2.9), where it has been quoted from the Satvata-tantra.
yadyapi kahiye tanre krsnera 'kala' kari
matsya-kurmady-avatarera tinho avatari
yadyapi--although; kahiye--I say; tanre--to Him; krsnera--of Lord Krsna; kala--part of the part; kari--making; matsya--the fish incarnation; kurma-adi--the tortoise incarnation and others; avatarera--of all these incarnations; tinho--He; avatari--the original source.
Although Ksirodasayi Visnu is called a kala of Lord Krsna, He is the source of Matsya, Kurma and the other incarnations.
ete--all these; ca--also; amsa-kalah--part or part of the part; pumsah--of the Supreme Person; krsnah tu--but Lord Krsna; bhagavan--the original Personality of Godhead; svayam--Himself; indra-ari--the demons; vyakulam--disturbed; lokam--all the planets; mrdayanti--makes them happy; yuge yuge--in different millenniums.
"All these incarnations of Godhead are either plenary portions or parts of the plenary portions of the purusa-avataras. But Krsna is the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself. In every age He protects the world through His different features when the world is disturbed by the enemies of Indra."
This quotation is from Srimad-Bhagavatam (1.3.28).
sei purusa srsti-sthiti-pralayera karta
nana avatara kare, jagatera bharta
sei--that; purusa--the Personality of Godhead; srsti-sthiti-pralayera--of creation, maintenance and annihilation; karta--creator; nana--various; avatara--incarnations; kare--makes; jagatera--of the material world; bharta--maintainer.
That purusa [Ksirodakasayi Visnu] is the performer of creation, maintenance and destruction. He manifests Himself in many incarnations, for He is the maintainer of the world.
srsty-adi-nimitte yei amsera avadhana
sei ta' amsere kahi 'avatara' nama
srsti-adi-nimitte--for the cause of creation, maintenance and annihilation; yei--which; amsera avadhana--manifestation of the part; sei ta'--that certainly; amsere kahi--I speak about that plenary expansion; avatara nama--by the name "incarnation."
That fragment of the Maha-purusa who appears for the purpose of creation, maintenance and annihilation is called an incarnation.
adya-avatara--the original incarnation; maha-purusa--Lord Maha-Visnu; bhagavan--the Personality of Godhead; sarva-avatara-bija--the seed of all different kinds of incarnations; sarva-asraya-dhama--the shelter of everything.
That Maha-purusa is identical with the Personality of Godhead. He is the original incarnation, the seed of all others, and the shelter of everything.
adyah avatarah--original incarnation; purusah--the Lord; parasya--of the Supreme; kalah--time; svabhavah--nature; sat-asat--cause and effect; manah ca--as well as the mind; dravyam--the five elements; vikarah--transformation or the false ego; gunah--modes of nature; indriyani--senses; virat--the universal form; svarat--complete independence; sthasnu--immovable; carisnu--movable; bhumnah--of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
"The purusa is the primary incarnation of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Time, nature, prakrti (as cause and effect), the mind, the material elements, false ego, the modes of nature, the senses, the universal form, complete independence and the moving and nonmoving beings appear subsequently as His opulences."
Describing the incarnations and their symptoms, the Laghu-bhagavatamrta has stated that when Lord Krsna descends to conduct the creative affairs of the material manifestation, He is an avatara, or incarnation. The two categories of avataras are empowered devotees and tad-ekatma-rupa (the Lord Himself). An example of tad-ekatma-rupa is Sesa, and an example of a devotee is Vasudeva, the father of Lord Krsna. Srila Baladeva Vidyabhusana has commented that the material cosmic manifestation is a partial kingdom of God where God must sometimes come to execute a specific function. The plenary portion of the Lord through whom Lord Krsna executes such actions is called Maha-Visnu, who is the primal beginning of all incarnations. Inexperienced observers presume that the material energy provides both the cause and the elements of the cosmic manifestation and that the living entities are the enjoyers of material nature. But the devotees of the Bhagavata school, which has scrutinizingly examined the entire situation, can understand that material nature can independently be neither the supplier of the material elements nor the cause of the material manifestation. Material nature gets the power to supply the material elements from the glance of the supreme purusa, Maha-Visnu, and when empowered by Him she is called the cause of the material manifestation. Both features of material nature, as the cause of the material creation and as the source of its elements, exist due to the glance of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The various expansions of the Supreme Lord who act to empower the material energy are known as plenary expansions or incarnations. As illustrated by the example of many flames lit from one flame, all these plenary expansions and incarnations are as good as Visnu Himself; nevertheless, because of their activities in controlling maya, sometimes they are known as mayika, or having a relationship with maya. This is a verse from Srimad-Bhagavatam (2.6.42).
jagrhe--accepted; paurusam--the purusa incarnation; rupam--the form; bhagavan--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; mahat-adibhih--by the total material energy etc.; sambhutam--created; sodasa--sixteen; kalam--energies; adau--originally; loka--the material worlds; sisrksaya--with the desire to create.
"In the beginning of the creation, the Lord expanded Himself in the form of the purusa incarnation, accompanied by all the ingredients of material creation. First He created the sixteen principal energies suitable for creation. This was for the purpose of manifesting the material universes."
This is a verse from Srimad-Bhagavatam (1.3.1). The commentary of Madhva on Srimad-Bhagavatam mentions that the following sixteen spiritual energies are present in the spiritual world: (1) sri, (2) bhu, (3) lila, (4) kanti, (5) kirti, (6) tusti, (7) gir, (8) pusti, (9) satya (10) jnanajnana, (11) jaya utkarsini, (12) vimala, (13) yogamaya, (14) prahvi, (15) isana and (16) anugraha. In his commentary on the Laghu-bhagavatamrta, Sri Baladeva Vidyabhusana has said that the above energies are also known by nine names: (1) vimala, (2) utkarsini (3) jnana, (4) kriya, (5) yoga, (6) prahvi, (7) satya, (8) isana and (9) anugraha. In the Bhagavat-sandarbha of Srila Jiva Gosvami (Anuccheda 103) they are described as sri, pusti, gir, kanti, kirti, tusti, ila, jaya; vidyavidya, maya, samvit, sandhini, hladini, bhakti, murti, vimala, yoga, prahvi, isana, anugraha, etc. All these energies act in different spheres of the Lord's supremacy.
yadyapi--although; sarva-asraya--the shelter of everything; tinho--He (the Lord); tanhate--in Him; samsara--the material creation; antah-atma-rupe--in the form of the Supersoul; tinho--He; jagat-adhara--the support of the whole creation.
Although the Lord is the shelter of everything and although all the universes rest in Him, He, as the Supersoul, is also the support of everything.
prakrti-sahite tanra ubhaya sambandha
tathapi prakrti-saha nahi sparsa-gandha
prakrti-sahite--with the material energy; tanra--His; ubhaya sambandha--both relationships; tathapi--still; prakrti-saha--with the material nature; nahi--there is not; sparsa-gandha--even the slightest contact.
Although He is thus connected with the material energy in two ways, He does not have the slightest contact with it.
In the Laghu-bhagavatamrta, Srila Rupa Gosvami, commenting upon the Lord's transcendental position beyond the material qualities, says that Visnu, as the controller and superintendent of material nature, has a connection with the material qualities. That connection is called yoga. However, the person who directs a prison is not also a prisoner. Similarly, although the Supreme Personality of Godhead Visnu directs or supervises the qualitative nature, He has no connection with the material modes of nature. The expansions of Lord Visnu always retain their supremacy; they are never connected with the material qualities. One may argue that Maha-Visnu cannot have any connection with the material qualities, because if He were so connected, Srimad-Bhagavatam would not state that material nature, ashamed of her thankless task of acting to induce the living entities to become averse to the Supreme Lord, remains behind the Lord in shyness. In answer to this argument, it may be said that the word guna means "regulation." Lord Visnu, Lord Brahma and Lord Siva are situated within this universe as the directors of the three modes, and their connection with the modes is known as yoga. This does not indicate, however, that these personalities are bound by the qualities of nature. Lord Visnu specifically is always the controller of the three qualities. There is no question of His coming under their control.
Although the causal and element-supplying features exist in material nature by dint of the glance of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the Lord is never affected by glancing over the material qualities. By the will of the Supreme Lord the different qualitative changes in the material world take place, but there is no possibility of material affection, change or contamination for Lord Visnu.
etat--this is; isanam--opulence; isasya--of the Lord; prakrti-sthah--within this material world; api--although; tat-gunaih--by the material qualities; na yujyate--never affected; sada--always; atma-sthaih--situated in His own energy; yatha--as also; buddhih--intelligence; tat--His; asraya--devotees.
"This is the opulence of the Lord. Although situated within the material nature, He is never affected by the modes of nature. Similarly, those who have surrendered to Him and have fixed their intelligence upon Him are not influenced by the modes of nature."
This is a verse from Srimad-Bhagavatam (1.11.38).
ei mata gitateha punah punah kaya
sarvada isvara-tattva acintya-sakti haya
ei mata--in this way; gitateha--in the Bhagavad-gita; punah punah--again and again; kaya--it is said; sarvada--always; isvara-tattva--the truth of the Absolute Truth; acintya-sakti haya--is inconceivable.
Thus the Bhagavad-gita also states again and again that the Absolute Truth always possesses inconceivable power.
ami ta' jagate vasi, jagat amate
na ami jagate vasi, na ama jagate
ami--I; ta'--certainly; jagate--in the material world; vasi--situated; jagat--the whole material creation; amate--in Me; na--not; ami--I; jagate--within the material world; vasi--situated; na--nor; ama--on Me; jagate--the material world.
"I am situated in the material world, and the world rests in Me. But at the same time I am not situated in the material world, nor does it rest on Me in truth."
Nothing in existence is possible unless energized by the will of the Lord. The entire manifested creation is therefore resting on the energy of the Lord, but one should not therefore presume that the material manifestation is identical with the Supreme Personality of Godhead. A cloud may rest in the sky, but that does not mean that the sky and the cloud are one and the same. Similarly, the qualitative material nature and its products are never identical with the Supreme Lord. The tendency to lord it over material nature, or maya, cannot be a feature of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. When He descends to the material world, He maintains His transcendental nature, unaffected by the material qualities. In both the spiritual and material worlds, He is always the controller of all energies. The uncontaminated spiritual nature always exists within Him. The Lord appears and disappears in the material world in different features for His pastimes, yet He is the origin of all cosmic manifestations.
The material manifestation cannot exist separate from the Supreme Lord, yet Lord Visnu, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, in spite of His connection with material nature, cannot be subordinate to nature's influence. His original form of eternal bliss and knowledge is never subordinate to the three qualities of material nature. This is a specific feature of the Supreme Lord's inconceivable potencies.
acintya aisvarya ei janiha amara
ei ta' gitara artha kaila paracara
acintya--inconceivable; aisvarya--opulence; ei--this; janiha--you must know; amara--of Me; ei ta'--this; gitara artha--the meaning of the Bhagavad-gita; kaila paracara--Lord Krsna propagated.
"O Arjuna, you should know this as My inconceivable opulence." This is the meaning propagated by Lord Krsna in the Bhagavad-gita."
sei ta' purusa yanra 'amsa' dhare nama
caitanyera sange sei nityananda-rama
sei ta'--that; purusa--Supreme Person; yanra--of whom; amsa--as part; dhare nama--is known; caitanyera sange--with Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; sei--that; nityananda-rama--Lord Nityananda or Balarama.
That Maha-purusa [Karanodakasayi Visnu] is known as a plenary part of Him who is Lord Nityananda Balarama, the favorite associate of Lord Caitanya.
ei ta' navama slokera artha-vivarana
dasama slokera artha suna diya mana
ei ta'--thus; navama slokera--of the ninth verse; artha-vivarana--description of the meaning; dasama slokera--of the tenth verse; artha--meaning; suna--hear; diya mana--with attention.
I have thus explained the ninth verse, and now I shall explain the tenth. Please listen with rapt attention.
loka-srastuh sutika-dhama dhatus
tam sri-nityananda-ramam prapadye
yasya--whose; amsa-amsah--portion of a plenary portion; srila-garbha-uda-sayi--Garbhodakasayi Visnu; yat--of whom; nabhi-abjam--the navel lotus; loka-sanghata--of the multitude of planets; nalam--having a stem that is the resting place; loka-srastuh--of Lord Brahma, creator of the planets; sutika-dhama--the birthplace; dhatuh--of the creator; tam--to Him; sri-nityananda-ramam--to Lord Balarama in the form of Lord Nityananda; prapadye--I surrender.
I offer my full obeisances unto the feet of Sri Nityananda Rama, a partial part of whom is Garbhodakasayi Visnu. From the navel of Garbhodakasayi Visnu sprouts the lotus that is the birthplace of Brahma, the engineer of the universe. The stem of that lotus is the resting place of the multitude of planets.
In the Mahabharata, Santi-parva, it is said that He who is Pradyumna is also Aniruddha. He is also the father of Brahma. Thus Garbhodakasayi Visnu and Ksirodakasayi Visnu are identical plenary expansions of Pradyumna, the original Deity of Brahma, who is born from the lotus flower. It is Pradyumna who gives Brahma direction for cosmic management. A full description of Brahma's birth is given in Srimad-Bhagavatam (3.8.15-16).
Describing the features of the three purusas, the Laghu-bhagavatamrta says that Garbhodakasayi Visnu has a four-handed form, and when He Himself enters the hollow of the universe and lies down in the ocean of milk He is known as Ksirodakasayi Visnu, who is the Supersoul of all living entities, including the demigods. In the Satvata-tantra it is said that the third purusa incarnation, Ksirodakasayi Visnu, is situated as the Supersoul in everyone's heart. This Ksirodakasayi Visnu is an expansion of Garbhodakasayi Visnu for pastimes.
sei ta' purusa ananta-brahmanda srjiya
saba ande pravesila bahu-murti hana
After creating millions of universes, the first purusa entered into each of them in a separate form, as Sri Garbhodakasayi.
bhitare pravesi' dekhe saba andhakara
rahite nahika sthana karila vicara
bhitare--within the universe; pravesi'--entering; dekhe--He sees; saba--all; andhakara--darkness; rahite--to stay; nahika--there is not; sthana--place; karila vicara--considered.
Entering the universe, He found only darkness, with no place in which to reside. Thus He began to consider.
nijanga-sveda-jala karila srjana
sei jale kaila ardha-brahmanda bharana
nija-anga--of His own body; sveda-jala--water from perspiration; karila--did; srjana--creation; sei jale--with that water; kaila--did; ardha-brahmanda--half of the universe; bharana--filling.
Then He created water from the perspiration of His own body and with that water filled half the universe.
ayama, vistara, dui haya eka sama
brahmanda-pramana--measurement of the universe; pancasat--fifty; koti--ten millions; yojana--lengths of eight miles; ayama--length; vistara--breadth; dui--both of them; haya--are; eka sama--one and the same.
The universe measures five hundred million yojanas. Its length and breadth are one and the same.
After filling half the universe with water, He made His own residence therein and manifested the fourteen worlds in the other half.
The fourteen worlds are enumerated in Srimad-Bhagavatam, Second Canto, Fifth Chapter. The upper planetary systems are (1) Bhu, (2) Bhuvar, (3) Svar, (4) Mahar, (5) Janas, (6) Tapas and (7) Satya. The seven lower planetary systems are (1) Tala, (2) Atala, (3) Vitala, (4) Nitala, (5) Talatala, (6) Mahatala and (7) Sutala. The lower planets, as a whole, are called Patala. Among the upper planetary systems, Bhu, Bhuvar and Svar constitute Svargaloka, and the rest are called Martya. The entire universe is thus known as Triloka.
ananta-sayyate--on Lord Ananta as a bed; tanha--there; karila sayana--lay down; sahasra--thousands; mastaka--heads; tanra--His; sahasra vadana--thousands of faces; sahasra--thousands; carana--legs; hasta--hands; sahasra-nayana--thousands of eyes; sarva-avatara-bija--the seed of all incarnations; jagat-karana--the cause of the material world.
He lay there with Ananta as His bed. Lord Ananta is a divine serpent having thousands of heads, thousands of faces, thousands of eyes and thousands of hands and feet. He is the seed of all incarnations and is the cause of the material world.
In the reservoir of water first created by the perspiration of Garbhodakasayi Visnu, the Lord lies on the Sesa plenary expansion of Visnu, who is described in Srimad-Bhagavatam and in the four Vedas as follows:
sahasra-sirsa purusah sahasraksah sahasra-pat
sa bhumim visvato vrtvatyatisthad dasangulam
The Visnu form called Ananta-sayana has thousands of hands and legs and thousands of eyes, and He is the active generator of all the incarnations within the material world.
tanra--His; nabhi-padma--lotus navel; haite--from; uthila--grew; eka--one; padma--lotus flower; sei padme--on that lotus; haila--there was; brahmara--of Lord Brahma; janma-sadma--the place of birth.
From His navel grew a lotus flower, which became the birthplace of Lord Brahma.
sei padma-nale haila caudda-bhuvana
tenho brahma hana srsti karila srjana
sei padma-nale--within the stem of that lotus flower; haila--were; caudda-bhuvana--the fourteen worlds; tenho--He Himself; brahma hana--appearing as Brahma; srsti--the creation; karila srjana--created.
Within the stem of that lotus were the fourteen worlds. Thus the Supreme Lord, as Brahma, created the entire creation.
visnu-rupa hana kare jagat palane
gunatita-visnu sparsa nahi maya-gune
visnu-rupa--the form of Lord Visnu; hana--becoming; kare--does; jagat palane--maintenance of the material world; guna-atita--beyond the material qualities; visnu--Lord Visnu; sparsa--touch; nahi--not; maya-gune--in the material qualities.
And as Lord Visnu He maintains the entire world. Lord Visnu, being beyond all material attributes, has no touch with the material qualities.
Sri Baladeva Vidyabhusana says that although Visnu is the predominating Deity of the quality of goodness in the material world, He is never affected by the quality of goodness, for He directs that quality simply by His supreme will. It is said that all living entities can derive all good fortune from the Lord simply by His will. In the Vamana Purana it is said that the same Visnu expands Himself as Brahma and Siva to direct the different qualities.
Because Lord Visnu expands the quality of goodness, He has the name Sattvatanu. The multifarious incarnations of Ksirodakasayi Visnu are known as Sattvatanu. Therefore in all Vedic scriptures Visnu has been described as being free from all material qualities. In the Tenth Canto of Srimad-Bhagavatam it is said:
harir hi nirgunah saksat
purusah prakrteh parah
sa sarva-drg upadrasta
tam bhajan nirguno bhavet
"The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Hari, is always uncontaminated by the modes of material nature, for He is beyond the material manifestation. He is the source of the knowledge of all the demigods, headed by Lord Brahma, and He is the witness of everything. Therefore one who worships the Supreme Lord Visnu also attains freedom from the contamination of material nature." (Bhag. 10.88.5)
One can attain freedom from the contamination of material nature by worshiping Visnu, and therefore He is called Sattvatanu, as described above.
rudra-rupa dhari' kare jagat samhara
rudra-rupa--the form of Lord Siva; dhari'--accepting; kare--does; jagat samhara--annihilation of the material world; srsti-sthiti-pralaya--creation, maintenance and annihilation; icchaya--by the will; yanhara--of whom.
Assuming the form of Rudra, He destroys the creation. Thus creation, maintenance and dissolution are created by His will.
Mahesvara, or Lord Siva, is not an ordinary living being, nor is he equal to Lord Visnu. Effectively comparing Lord Visnu and Lord Siva, the Brahma-samhita says that Visnu is like milk, whereas Siva is like curd. Curd is nothing like milk, but nevertheless it is milk also.
hiranya-garbha, antaryami, jagat-karana
yanra amsa kari' kare virata-kalpana
hiranya-garbha--of the name Hiranyagarbha; antah-yami--the Supersoul; jagat-karana--the cause of the material world; yanra amsa kari'--taking as His expansion; kare--does; virata-kalpana--conception of the universal form.
He is the Supersoul, Hiranyagarbha, the cause of the material world. The universal form is conceived as His expansion.
hena narayana,----yanra amsera amsa
sei prabhu nityananda----sarva-avatamsa
hena--such; narayana--Lord Narayana; yanra--of whom; amsera--of the plenary part; amsa--apart; sei--that; prabhu--the Lord; nityananda--of the name Nityananda; sarva-avatamsa--the source of all incarnations.
That Lord Narayana is a part of a plenary part of Lord Nityananda Balarama, who is the source of all incarnations.
dasama--tenth; slokera--of the verse; artha--meaning; kaila--have done; vivarana--description; ekadasa--eleventh; slokera--of the verse; artha--meaning; suna--please hear; diya mana--with the mind.
I have thus explained the tenth verse. Now please listen to the meaning of the eleventh verse with all your mind.
posta visnur bhati dugdhabdhi-sayi
ksauni-bharta yat-kala so 'py anantas
tam sri-nityananda-ramam prapadye
yasya--whose; amsa-amsa-amsah--a portion of a portion of a plenary portion; para-atma--the Supersoul; akhilanam--of all living entities; posta--the maintainer; visnuh--Visnu; bhati--appears; dugdha-abdhi-sayi--Ksirodakasayi Visnu; ksauni-bharta--upholder of the earth; yat--whose; kala--portion of a portion; sah--He; api--certainly; anantah--Sesa Naga; tam--to Him; sri-nityananda-ramam--to Lord Balarama in the form of Lord Nityananda; prapadye--I surrender.
I offer my respectful obeisances unto the feet of Sri Nityananda Rama, whose secondary part is the Visnu lying in the ocean of milk. That Ksirodakasayi Visnu is the Supersoul of all living entities and the maintainer of all the universes. Sesa Naga is His further subpart.
narayanera nabhi-nala-madhyete dharani
dharanira madhye sapta samudra ye gani
narayanera--of Lord Narayana; nabhi-nala--the stem from the navel; madhyete--within; dharani--the material planets; dharanira madhye--among the material planets; sapta--seven; samudra--oceans; ye gani--they count.
The material planets rest within the stem that grew from the lotus navel of Lord Narayana. Among these planets are seven oceans.
tanha ksirodadhi-madhye 'svetadvipa' nama
palayita visnu,----tanra sei nija dhama
tanha--within that; ksira-udadhi-madhye--in part of the ocean known as the ocean of milk; svetadvipa nama--the island named Svetadvipa; palayita visnu--the maintainer, Lord Visnu; tanra--of Him; sei--that; nija dhama--own residential quarters.
There, in part of the ocean of milk, lies Svetadvipa, the abode of the sustainer, Lord Visnu.
In the Siddhanta-siromani, an astrological text, the different oceans are described as follows: (1) the ocean of salt water, (2) the ocean of milk, (3) the ocean of yogurt, (4) the ocean of clarified butter, (5) the ocean of sugarcane juice, (6) the ocean of liquor and (7) the ocean of sweet water. On the southern side of the ocean of salt water is the ocean of milk, where Lord Ksirodakasayi Visnu resides. He is worshiped there by demigods like Brahma.
sakala jivera tinho haye antaryami
jagat-palaka tinho jagatera svami
sakala--all; jivera--of the living entities; tinho--He; haye--is; antah-yami--the Supersoul; jagat-palaka--the maintainer of the material world; tinho--He; jagatera svami--the Lord of the material world.
He is the Supersoul of all living entities. He maintains this material world, and He is its Lord.
The Laghu-bhagavatamrta gives the following description of the Visnuloka within this universe, quoted from the Visnu-dharmottara: "Above Rudraloka, the planet of Lord Siva, is the planet called Visnuloka, 400,000 miles in circumference, which is inaccessible to any mortal living being. Above that Visnuloka and east of the Sumeru Hill is a golden island called Maha-Visnuloka, in the ocean of salt water. Lord Brahma and other demigods sometimes go there to meet Lord Visnu. Lord Visnu lies there with the goddess of fortune, and it is said that during the four months of the rainy season He enjoys sleeping on that Sesa Naga bed. East of Sumeru is the ocean of milk, in which there is a white city on a white island where the Lord can be seen sitting with His consort, Laksmiji, on a throne of Sesa. That feature of Visnu also enjoys sleeping during the four months of the rainy season. The Svetadvipa in the milk ocean is situated just south of the ocean of salt water. It is calculated that the area of Svetadvipa is 200,000 square miles. This transcendentally beautiful island is decorated with desire trees to please Lord Visnu and His consort." There are references to Svetadvipa in the Brahmanda Purana, Visnu Purana, Mahabharata and Padma Purana, and there is the following reference in Srimad-Bhagavatam (11.15.18).
"My dear Uddhava, you may know that My transcendental form of Visnu in Svetadvipa is identical with Me in divinity. Anyone who places this Lord of Svetadvipa within his heart can surpass the pangs of the six material tribulations: hunger, thirst, birth, death, lamentation and illusion. Thus one can attain his original, transcendental form."
yuga-manu-antare--in the ages and millenniums of Manu; dhari'--accepting; nana--various; avatara--incarnations; dharma samsthapana kare--establishes the principles of religion; adharma samhara--vanquishing irreligious principles.
In the ages and millenniums of Manu, He appears as different incarnations to establish the principles of real religion and vanquish the principles of irreligion.
Lord Visnu, who lies in the ocean of milk, incarnates Himself in various forms to maintain the laws of the cosmos and annihilate the causes of disturbance. Such incarnations are visible in every manv-antara (i.e., in the course of the reign of each Manu, who lives for 71 x 4,320,000 years). Fourteen such Manus take their birth and die, to yield a place for the next, during one day of Brahma.
deva-gane na paya yanhara darasana
ksirodaka-tire yai' karena stavana
deva-gane--the demigods; na--not; paya--get; yanhara--whose; darasana--sight; ksira-udaka-tire--on the bank of the ocean of milk; yai'--go; karena stavana--offer prayers.
Unable to see Him, the demigods go to the bank of the ocean of milk and offer prayers to Him.
The denizens of heaven, who live in the planetary systems beginning from Svarloka, cannot even see Lord Visnu in Svetadvipa. Unable to reach the island, they can simply approach the beach of the milk ocean to offer transcendental prayers to the Lord, appealing to Him on special occasions to appear as an incarnation.
tabe avatari' kare jagat palana
ananta vaibhava tanra nahika ganana
tabe--at that time; avatari'--descending; kare--does; jagat palana--maintenance of the material world; ananta--unlimited; vaibhava--the opulences; tanra--of Him; nahika--there is not; ganana--counting.
He then descends to maintain the material world. His unlimited opulences cannot be counted.
sei visnu haya yanra amsamsera amsa
sei prabhu nityananda----sarva-avatamsa
sei--that; visnu--Lord Visnu; haya--is; yanra--whose; amsa-amsera--of the part of the plenary part; amsa--part; sei--that; prabhu--Lord; nityananda--Nityananda; sarva-avatamsa--the source of all incarnations.
That Lord Visnu is but a part of a part of a plenary portion of Lord Nityananda, who is the source of all incarnations.
The Lord of Svetadvipa has immense potency for creation and destruction. Sri Nityananda Prabhu, being Baladeva Himself, the original form of Sankarsana, is the original form of the Lord of Svetadvipa.
sei visnu 'sesa'-rupe dharena dharani
kanha ache mahi, sire, hena nahi jani
sei--that; visnu--Lord Visnu; sesa-rupe--in form of Lord Sesa; dharena--carries; dharani--the planets; kanha--where; ache--are; mahi--the planets; sire--on the head; hena nahi jani--I cannot understand.
That same Lord Visnu, in the form of Lord Sesa, holds the planets upon His heads, although He does not know where they are, for He cannot feel their existence upon His heads.
sahasra vistirna yanra phanara mandala
surya jini' mani-gana kare jhala-mala
pancasat--fifty; koti--ten millions; yojana--eight miles; prthivi--of the universe; vistara--breadth; yanra--whose; eka-phane--on one of the hoods; rahe--stays; sarsapa-akara--like a mustard seed.
The universe, which measures five hundred million yojanas in diameter, rests on one of His hoods like a mustard seed.
The Lord of Svetadvipa expands Himself as Sesa Naga, who sustains all the planets upon His innumerable hoods. These huge global spheres are compared to grains of mustard resting on the spiritual hoods of Sesa Naga. The scientists' law of gravity is a partial explanation of Lord Sankarsana's energy. The name "Sankarsana" has an etymological relationship to the idea of gravity. There is a reference to Sesa Naga in Srimad-Bhagavatam (5.17.21), where it is said:
yam ahur asya sthiti janma-samyamam
tribhir vihinam yam anantam rsayah
na veda siddartham iva kvacit sthitam
"O my Lord, the hymns of the Vedas proclaim that You are the effective cause for the creation, maintenance and destruction. But in fact You are transcendental to all limitations and are therefore known as unlimited. On Your thousands of hoods rest the innumerable global spheres, like grains of mustard so insignificant that You have no perception of their weight."
"Lord Anantadeva has thousands of hoods. Each sustains a global sphere that appears like a grain of mustard."
sei ta' 'ananta' 'sesa'----bhakta-avatara
isvarera seva vina nahi jane ara
sei ta'--that; ananta--Lord Ananta; sesa--the incarnation Sesa; bhakta-avatara--incarnation of a devotee; isvarera seva--the service of the Lord; vina--without; nahi--not; jane--knows; ara--anything else.
That Ananta Sesa is the devotee incarnation of Godhead. He knows nothing but service to Lord Krsna.
Srila Jiva Gosvami, in his Krsna-sandarbha, has described Sesa Naga as follows: "Sri Anantadeva has thousands of faces and is fully independent. Always ready to serve the Supreme Personality of Godhead, He waits upon Him constantly. Sankarsana is the first expansion of Vasudeva, and because He appears by His own will, He is called svarat, fully independent. He is therefore infinite and transcendental to all limits of time and space. He Himself appears as the thousand-headed Sesa." In the Skanda Purana, in the Ayodhya-mahatmya chapter, the demigod Indra requested Lord Sesa, who was standing before him as Laksmana, "Please go to Your eternal abode, Visnuloka, where Your expansion Sesa, with His serpentine hoods, is also present." After thus dispatching Laksmana to the regions of Patala, Lord Indra returned to his abode. This quotation indicates that the Sankarsana of the quadruple form descends with Lord Rama as Laksmana. When Lord Rama disappears, Sesa again separates Himself from the personality of Laksmana. Sesa then returns to His own abode in the Patala regions, and Laksmana returns to His abode in Vaikuntha.
The Laghu-bhagavatamrta gives the following description: "The Sankarsana of the second group of quadruple forms appears as Rama, taking with Him Sesa, who bears the global spheres. There are two features of Sesa. One is the bearer of the globes, and the other is the bedstead servitor. The Sesa who bears the globes is a potent incarnation of Sankarsana, and therefore He is sometimes also called Sankarsana. The bedstead feature of Sesa always presents himself as an eternal servitor of the Lord."
sahasra-vadane kare krsna-guna gana
niravadhi guna ga'na, anta nahi pa'na
sahasra-vadane--in thousands of mouths; kare--does; krsna-guna gana--chanting of the holy attributes of Krsna; niravadhi--continuously; guna ga'na--chanting of the transcendental qualities; anta nahi pa'na--does not reach the end.
With His thousands of mouths He sings the glories of Lord Krsna, but although He always sings in that way, He does not find an end to the qualities of the Lord.
sanaka-adi--the great sages headed by Sanaka, Sananda, etc.; bhagavata--Srimad-Bhagavatam; sune--hear; yanra mukhe--from whose mouth; bhagavanera--of the Personality of Godhead; guna--attributes; kahe--say; bhase--float; prema-sukhe--in the transcendental bliss of love of Godhead.
The four Kumaras hear Srimad-Bhagavatam from His lips, and they in turn repeat it in the transcendental bliss of love of Godhead.
He serves Lord Krsna, assuming all the following forms: umbrella, slippers, bedding, pillow, garments, resting chair, residence, sacred thread and throne.
eta murti-bheda kari' krsna-seva kare
krsnera sesata pana 'sesa' nama dhare
eta--so many; murti-bheda--different forms; kari'--taking; krsna-seva kare--serves Lord Krsna; krsnera--of Lord Krsna; sesata--ultimate end; pana--having reached; sesa nama dhare--assumes the name Sesa Naga.
He is thus called Lord Sesa, for He has attained the ultimate end of servitude to Krsna. He takes many forms for the service of Krsna, and thus He serves the Lord.
sei ta' ananta, yanra kahi eka kala
hena prabhu nityananda, ke jane tanra khela
sei ta'--that; ananta--Lord Ananta; yanra--of whom; kahi--I say; eka kala--one part of the part; hena--such; prabhu nityananda--Lord Nityananda Prabhu; ke--who; jane--knows; tanra--His; khela--pastimes.
That person of whom Lord Ananta is a kala, or part of a plenary part, is Lord Nityananda Prabhu. Who, therefore, can know the pastimes of Lord Nityananda?
e-saba pramane jani nityananda-tattva-sima
tanhake 'ananta' kahi, ki tanra mahima
e-saba--all these; pramane--by the evidences; jani--I know; nityananda-tattva-sima--the limit of the truth of Lord Nityananda; tanhake--to Him (Lord Nityananda, Balarama); ananta--Lord Ananta; kahi--if I say; ki tanre mahima--what glory do I speak about Him.
From these conclusions we can know the limit of the truth of Lord Nityananda. But what glory is there in calling Him Ananta?
athava--otherwise; bhaktera vakya--anything spoken by a pure devotee; mani--I accept; satya kari'--as truth; sakala--everything; sambhave--possible; tante--in Him; yate--since; avatari--the original source of all incarnations.
But I accept it as the truth because it has been said by devotees. Since He is the source of all incarnations, everything is possible in Him.
avatara-avatari----abheda, ye jane
purve yaiche krsnake keho kaho kari' mane
avatara-avatari--an incarnation and the source of all incarnations; abheda--identical; ye jane--anyone who knows; purve--formerly; yaiche--just as; krsnake--unto Lord Krsna; keho--somebody; kaho--somewhere; kari'--making; mane--accepts.
They know that there is no difference between the incarnation and the source of all incarnations. Previously Lord Krsna was regarded in the light of different principles by different people.
keho kahe--someone says; krsna--Lord Krsna; ksiroda-sayi avatara--an incarnation of Lord Visnu lying in the ocean of milk; asambhava nahe--there is not impossibility; satya--true; vacana sabara--everyone's statement.
Some called Lord Krsna an incarnation of Lord Ksirodakasayi. All these names are true; nothing is impossible.
krsna yabe avatare sarvamsa-asraya
sarvamsa asi' tabe krsnete milaya
krsna--Lord Krsna; yabe--when; avatare--descends; sarva-amsa-asraya--the shelter of all other visnu-tattvas; sarva-amsa--all plenary portions; asi'--coming; tabe--at that time; krsnete--in Krsna; milaya--join.
When the Supreme Personality of Godhead Krsna appears, He is the shelter of all plenary parts. Thus at that time all His plenary portions join in Him.
yei yei rupe jane, sei taha kahe
sakala sambhave krsne, kichu mithya nahe
yei yei--whatever; rupe--in the form; jane--one knows; sei--he; taha--that; kahe--says; sakala sambhave krsne--everything is possible in Krsna; kichu mithya nahe--there is no falsity.
In whatever form one knows the Lord, one speaks of Him in that way. In this there is no falsity, since everything is possible in Krsna.
In this connection we may mention an incident that took place between two of our sannyasis while we were preaching the Hare Krsna maha-mantra in Hyderabad. One of them stated that "Hare Rama" refers to Sri Balarama, and the other protested that "Hare Rama" means Lord Rama. Ultimately the controversy came to me, and I gave the decision that if someone says that "Rama" in "Hare Rama" is Lord Ramacandra and someone else says that the "Rama" in "Hare Rama" is Sri Balarama, both are correct because there is no difference between Sri Balarama and Lord Rama. Here in Sri Caitanya-caritamrta we find that Krsnadasa Kaviraja Gosvami has stated the same conclusion:
yei yei rupe jane, sei taha kahe
sakala sambhave krsne, kichu mithya nahe
If someone calls Lord Ramacandra by the vibration Hare Rama, or if he understands "Ramacandra," he is quite right. Similarly, if one says that Hare Rama means Sri Balarama, he is also right. Those who are aware of the visnu-tattva do not fight over all these details.
In the Laghu-bhagavatamrta Srila Rupa Gosvami has explained Krsna's being both Ksirodakasayi Visnu and Narayana in the spiritual sky and expanding in quadruple forms like Vasudeva, Sankarsana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha. He has refuted the idea that Krsna is an incarnation of Narayana. Some devotees think that Narayana is the original Personality of Godhead and that Krsna is an incarnation. Even Sankaracarya, in his commentary on the Bhagavad-gita, has accepted Narayana as the transcendental Personality of Godhead who appeared as Krsna, the son of Devaki and Vasudeva. Therefore this matter may be difficult to understand. But the Gaudiya Vaisnava-sampradaya, headed by Rupa Gosvami, has established the principle of the Bhagavad-gita that everything emanates from Krsna, who says in the Bhagavad-gita, aham sarvasya prabhavah: "I am the original source of everything." "Everything" includes Narayana. Therefore Rupa Gosvami, in his Laghu-bhagavatamrta, has established that Krsna, not Narayana, is the original Personality of Godhead.
In this connection he has quoted a verse from Srimad-Bhagavatam (3.2.15) that states:
sva-santa-rupesv itaraih svarupair
hy ajo 'pi jato bhagavan yathagnih
"When pure devotees of the Lord like Vasudeva are greatly disturbed by dangerous demons like Kamsa, Lord Krsna joins with all His pastime expansions, such as the Lord of Vaikuntha, and, although unborn, becomes manifest, just as fire becomes manifest by the friction of arani wood."
Arani wood is used to ignite a sacrificial fire without matches or any other flame. Just as fire appears from arani wood, the Supreme Lord appears when there is friction between devotees and nondevotees. When Krsna appears, He appears in full, including within Himself all His expansions like Narayana, Vasudeva, Sankarsana, Aniruddha and Pradyumna. Krsna is always integrated with His other incarnations, like Nrsimhadeva, Varaha, Vamana, Nara-Narayana, Hayagriva and Ajita. In Vrndavana sometimes Lord Krsna exhibits the functions of such incarnations.
In the Brahmanda Purana it is said: "The same Personality of Godhead who is known in Vaikuntha as the four-handed Narayana, the friend of all living entities, and in the milk ocean as the Lord of Svetadvipa, and who is the best of all purusas, appeared as the son of Nanda. In a fire there are many sparks of different dimensions; some of them are very big, and some are small. The small sparks are compared to the living entities, and the large sparks are compared to the Visnu expansions of Lord Krsna. All the incarnations emanate from Krsna, and after the end of their pastimes they again merge with Krsna."
Therefore in the various Puranas Krsna is described sometimes as Narayana, sometimes as Ksirodakasayi Visnu, sometimes as Garbhodakasayi Visnu and sometimes as Vaikunthanatha, the Lord of Vaikuntha. Because Krsna is always full, Mula-sankarsana is in Krsna, and since all incarnations are manifested from Mula-sankarsana, it should be understood that He can manifest different incarnations by His supreme will, even in the presence of Krsna. Great sages have therefore glorified the Lord by different names. Thus when the original person, the source of all incarnations, is sometimes described as an incarnation, there is no discrepancy.
ei-rupe--in this way; nityananda--Lord Nityananda; ananta-prakasa--unlimited manifestations; sei-bhave--in that transcendental emotion; kahe--He says; muni--I; caitanyera dasa--the servant of Lord Caitanya.
Thus Lord Nityananda has unlimited incarnations. In transcendental emotion He calls Himself a servant of Lord Caitanya.
kabhu--sometimes; guru--spiritual master; kabhu--sometimes; sakha--friend; kabhu--sometimes; bhrtya-lila--pastimes as a servant; purve--formerly; yena--as; tina-bhave--in three different modes; vraje--in Vrndavana; kaila khela--played with Krsna.
Sometimes He serves Lord Caitanya as His guru, sometimes as His friend and sometimes as His servant, just as Lord Balarama played with Lord Krsna in these three different modes in Vraja.
vrsa hana krsna-sane matha-mathi rana
kabhu krsna kare tanra pada-samvahana
vrsa hana--becoming a bull; krsna-sane--with Krsna; matha-mathi rana--fighting head to head; kabhu--sometimes; krsna--Krsna; kare--does; tanra--His; pada-samvahana--massaging the feet.
Playing like a bull, Lord Balarama fights with Krsna head to head. And sometimes Lord Krsna massages the feet of Lord Balarama.
apanake bhrtya kari' krsne prabhu jane
krsnera kalara kala apanake mane
apanake--Himself; bhrtya kari'--considering a servant; krsna--Krsna; prabhu--master; jane--He knows; krsnera--of Lord Krsna; kalara kala--as a plenary portion of a plenary portion; apanake--Himself; mane--He accepts.
He considers Himself a servant and knows Krsna to be His master. Thus He regards Himself as a fragment of His plenary portion.
kvacit--sometimes; krida--playing; parisrantam--very much fatigued; gopa-utsanga--the lap of a cowherd boy; upabarhanam--whose pillow; svayam--personally Lord Krsna; visramayati--causing to rest; aryam--His elder brother; pada-samvahana-adibhih--by massaging His feet, etc.
"Sometimes when Lord Krsna's elder brother, Lord Balarama, felt tired after playing and lay His head on the lap of a cowherd boy, Lord Krsna Himself served Him by massaging His feet."
keyam va kuta ayata
daivi va nary utasuri
prayo mayastu me bhartur
nanya me 'pi vimohini
ka--who; iyam--this; va--or; kutah--from where; ayata--has come; daivi--whether demigod; va--or; nari--woman; uta--or; asuri--demoness; prayah--in most cases; maya--illusory energy; astu--she must be; me--My; bhartuh--of the master, Lord Krsna; na--not; anya--any other; me--My; api--certainly; vimohini--bewilderer.
"Who is this mystic power, and where has she come from? Is she a demigod or a demoness? She must be the illusory energy of My master, Lord Krsna, for who else can bewilder Me?"
The playful pastimes of the Lord caused suspicion in the mind of Lord Brahma, and therefore Lord Brahma, to test Krsna's Lordship, stole all the Lord's cows and cowherd boys with his own mystic power. Sri Krsna responded, however, by replacing all the cows and boys in the field. Lord Balarama's thoughts of astonishment at such wonderful retaliation are recorded in this verse (Bhag. 10.13.37).
mauly-uttamair dhrtam upasita-tirtha-tirtham
brahma bhavo 'ham api yasya kalah kalayah
sris codvahema ciram asya nrpasanam kva
yasya--whose; anghri-pankaja--lotuslike feet; rajah--the dust; akhila-loka--of the universal planetary systems; palaih--by the masters; mauli-uttamaih--with valuable turbans on their heads; dhrtam--accepted; upasita--worshiped; tirtha-tirtham--the sanctifier of the holy places; brahma--Lord Brahma; bhavah--Lord Siva; aham api--even I; yasya--of whom; kalah--portions; kalayah--of a plenary portion; srih--the goddess of fortune; ca--and; udvahema--we carry; ciram--eternally; asya--of Him; nrpa-asanam--the throne of a king; kva--where.
"What is the value of a throne to Lord Krsna? The masters of the various planetary systems accept the dust of His lotus feet on their crowned heads. That dust makes the holy places sacred, and even Lord Brahma, Lord Siva, Laksmi and I Myself, who are all portions of His plenary portion, eternally carry that dust on our heads."
When the Kauravas, to flatter Baladeva so that He would become their ally, spoke ill of Sri Krsna, Lord Baladeva was angry and spoke this verse (Bhag. 10.68.37).
ekale isvara krsna, ara saba bhrtya
yare yaiche nacaya, se taiche kare nrtya
ekale--alone; isvara--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; krsna--Krsna; ara--others; saba--all; bhrtya--servants; yare--unto whom; yaiche--as; nacaya--He causes to dance; se--He; taiche--in that way; kare nrtya--dances.
Lord Krsna alone is the supreme controller, and all others are His servants. They dance as He makes them do so.
ei mata caitanya-gosani ekale isvara
ara saba parisada, keha va kinkara
ei mata--in this way; caitanya-gosani--Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; ekale--alone; isvara--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; ara saba--all others; parisada--associates; keha--someone; va--or; kinkara--servants.
Thus Lord Caitanya is also the only controller. All others are His associates or servants.
guru-varga,----nityananda, advaita acarya
srivasadi, ara yata----laghu, sama, arya
sabe parisada, sabe lilara sahaya
saba lana nija-karya sadhe gaura-raya
guru-varga--elders; nityananda--Lord Nityananda; advaita acarya--and Advaita Acarya; srivasa-adi--Srivasa Thakura and others; ara--others; yata--all; laghu, sama, arya--junior, equal or superior; sabe--everyone; parisada--associates; sabe--everyone; lilara sahaya--helpers in the pastimes; saba lana--taking all of them; nija-karya--His own aims; sadhe--executes; gaura-raya--Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu.
His elders such as Lord Nityananda, Advaita Acarya and Srivasa Thakura, as well as His other devotees--whether His juniors, equals or superiors--are all His associates who help Him in His pastimes. Lord Gauranga fulfills His aims with their help.
advaita acarya, nityananda,----dui anga
dui-jana lana prabhura yata kichu ranga
advaita acarya--Sri Advaita Acarya; nityananda--Lord Nityananda; dui anga--two limbs of the Lord; dui-jana lana--taking the two of Them; prabhura--of Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; yata--all; kichu--some; ranga--playful activities.
Sri Advaita Acarya and Srila Nityananda Prabhu, who are plenary parts of the Lord, are His principal associates. With these two the Lord performs His pastimes in various ways.
advaita-acarya-gosani saksat isvara
prabhu guru kari' mane, tinho ta' kinkara
advaita-acarya--of the name Advaita Acarya; gosani--the Lord; saksat isvara--directly the Supreme Personality of Godhead; prabhu--Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; guru kari' mane--accepts Him as His teacher; tinho ta' kinkara--but He is the servant.
Lord Advaita Acarya is directly the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Although Lord Caitanya accepts Him as His preceptor, Advaita Acarya is a servant of the Lord.
Lord Caitanya always offered respects to Advaita Prabhu as He would to His father because Advaita was even older than His father; yet Advaita Prabhu always considered Himself a servant of Lord Caitanya. Sri Advaita Prabhu and Isvara Puri, Lord Caitanya's spiritual master, were both disciples of Madhavendra Puri, who was also the spiritual master of Nityananda Prabhu. Thus Advaita Prabhu, as Lord Caitanya's spiritual uncle, was always to be respected because one should respect one's spiritual master's Godbrothers as one respects one's spiritual master. Because of all these considerations, Sri Advaita Prabhu was superior to Lord Caitanya, yet Advaita Prabhu considered Himself Lord Caitanya's subordinate.
acarya-gosanira tattva na yaya kathana
krsna avatari yenho tarila bhuvana
acarya-gosanira--of Advaita Acarya; tattva--the truth; na yaya kathana--cannot be described; krsna--Lord Krsna; avatari--making descend; yenho--who; tarila--delivered; bhuvana--all the world.
I cannot describe the truth of Advaita Acarya. He has delivered the entire world by making Lord Krsna descend.
nityananda-svarupa purve ha-iya laksmana
laghu-bhrata haiya kare ramera sevana
nityananda-svarupa--Lord Nityananda Svarupa; purve--formerly; ha-iya--becoming; laksmana--Laksmana, Lord Ramacandra's younger brother; laghu-bhratra haiya--becoming the younger brother; kare--does; ramera sevana--service to Lord Ramacandra.
Lord Nityananda Svarupa formerly appeared as Laksmana and served Lord Ramacandra as His younger brother.
Among the sannyasis of the Sankara-sampradaya there are different names for brahmacaris. Each sannyasi has some assistants, known as brahmacaris, who are called by different names according to the names of the sannyasi. Among such brahmacaris there are four names: Svarupa, Ananda, Prakasa and Caitanya. Nityananda Prabhu maintained Himself as a brahmacari; He never took sannyasa. As a brahmacari His name was Nityananda Svarupa, and therefore the sannyasi under whom He was living must have been from the tirthas or asramas.
ramera caritra saba--all the activities of Lord Ramacandra; duhkhera karana--causes of suffering; sva-tantra--although independent; lilaya--in the pastimes; duhkha--unhappiness; sahena laksmana--Laksmana tolerates.
The activities of Lord Rama were full of suffering, but Laksmana, of His own accord, tolerated that suffering.
krsna-avatare--in the incarnation of Lord Krsna; jyestha haila--He became the elder brother; sevara karana--for the purpose of service; krsnake--to Krsna; karaila--made; nana--various; sukha--happinesses; asvadana--tasting.
When Lord Krsna appeared, He [Balarama] became His elder brother to serve Him to His heart's content and make Him enjoy all sorts of happiness.
rama-laksmana--Ramacandra and Laksmana; krsna-ramera amsa-visesa--particular expansions of Lord Krsna and Lord Balarama; avatara-kale--at the time of incarnation; donhe--both of Them (Rama and Laksmana); donhate pravesa--entered into Them both (Krsna and Balarama).
Sri Rama and Sri Laksmana, who are plenary portions of Lord Krsna and Lord Balarama, entered into Them at the time of Krsna's and Balarama's appearance.
With reference to the Visnu-dharmottara, the Laghu-bhagavatamrta explains that Rama is an incarnation of Vasudeva, Laksmana is an incarnation of Sankarsana, Bharata is an incarnation of Pradyumna, and Satrughna is an incarnation of Aniruddha. The Padma Purana describes that Ramacandra is Narayana and that Laksmana, Bharata and Satrughna are respectively Sesa, Cakra and Sankha (the conchshell in the hand of Narayana). In the Rama-gita of the Skanda Purana, Laksmana, Bharata and Satrughna have been described as the triple attendants of Lord Rama.
sei amsa lana jyestha-kanisthabhimana
amsamsi-rupe sastre karaye vyakhyana
sei amsa lana--taking that plenary portion; jyestha-kanistha-abhimana--considering Themselves the elder or younger; amsa-amsi-rupe--as the expansion and the original Supreme Personality of Godhead; sastre--in the revealed scriptures; karaye--does; vyakhyana--explanation.
Krsna and Balarama present Themselves as elder or younger brother, but in the scriptures They are described as the original Supreme Personality of Godhead and His expansion.
ramadi-murtisu kala-niyamena tisthan
nanavataram akarod bhuvanesu kintu
krsnah svayam samabhavat paramah puman yo
govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami
rama-adi--the incarnation of Lord Rama, etc.; murtisu--in different forms; kala-niyamena--by the order of plenary portions; tisthan--existing; nana--various; avataram--incarnations; akarot--executed; bhuvanesu--within the worlds; kintu--but; krsnah--Lord Krsna; svayam--personally; samabhavat--appeared; paramah--the supreme; puman--person; yah--who; govindam--unto Lord Govinda; adi-purusam--the original person; tam--unto Him; aham--I; bhajami--offer obeisances.
"I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, who by His various plenary portions appeared in the world in different forms and incarnations such as Lord Rama, but who personally appears in His supreme original form as Lord Krsna."
This is a quotation from Brahma-samhita (5.39).
sri-caitanya----sei krsna, nityananda----rama
nityananda purna kare caitanyera kama
sri-caitanya--Lord Sri Caitanya; sei krsna--that original Krsna; nityananda--Lord Nityananda; rama--Balarama; nityananda--Lord Nityananda; purna kare--fulfills; caitanyera kama--all the desires of Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu.
Lord Caitanya is the same Lord Krsna, and Lord Nityananda is Lord Balarama. Lord Nityananda fulfills all of Lord Caitanya's desires.
nityananda-mahima-sindhu ananta, apara
eka kana sparsi matra,----se krpa tanhara
nityananda-mahima--of the glories of Lord Nityananda; sindhu--the ocean; ananta--unlimited; apara--unfathomed; eka kana--one fragment; sparsi--I touch; matra--only; se--that; krpa--mercy; tanhara--His.
The ocean of Lord Nityananda's glories is infinite and unfathomable. Only by His mercy can I touch even a drop of it.
ara eka suna tanra krpara mahima
adhama jivere cadhaila urdhva-sima
ara--another; eka--one; suna--please hear; tanra krpara mahima--glory of His mercy; adhama jivere--the downtrodden living being; cadhaila--He elevated; urdhva-sima--to the topmost limit.
Please listen to another glory of His mercy. He made a fallen living entity climb to the highest limit.
veda-guhya katha ei ayogya kahite
tathapi kahiye tanra krpa prakasite
veda--like the Vedas; guhya--very confidential; katha--incident; ei--this; ayogya kahite--not fit to disclose; tathapi--still; kahiye--I speak; tanra--His; krpa--mercy; prakasite--to manifest.
To disclose it is not proper, for it should be kept as confidential as the Vedas, yet I shall speak of it to make His mercy known to all.
ullasa-upari lekhon tomara prasada
nityananda prabhu, mora ksama aparadha
ullasa-upari--on account of great ecstasy; lekhon--I write; tomara prasada--Your mercy; nityananda prabhu--Lord Nityananda; mora--my; ksama--please excuse; aparadha--offenses.
O Lord Nityananda, I write of Your mercy out of great exultation. Please forgive me for my offenses.
avadhuta gosanira eka bhrtya prema-dhama
minaketana ramadasa haya tanra nama
avadhuta--the mendicant; gosanira--of Lord Nityananda; eka--one; bhrtya--servant; prema-dhama--reservoir of love; minaketana--Minaketana; rama-dasa--Ramadasa; haya--is; tanra--his; nama--name.
Lord Nityananda Prabhu had a servant named Sri Minaketana Ramadasa, who was a reservoir of love.
In a joyful mood of love of God he sometimes climbed upon the shoulder of someone offering obeisances, and sometimes he struck others with his flute or mildly slapped them.
ye nayana dekhite asru haya mane yara
sei netre avicchinna vahe asru-dhara
ye--his; nayana--eyes; dekhite--seeing; asru--tears; haya--appear; mane--from the mind; yara--of someone; sei netre--in his eyes; avicchinna--continuously; vahe--flows; asru-dhara--a shower of tears.
When someone saw the eyes of Minaketana Ramadasa, tears would automatically flow from his own eyes, for a constant shower of tears flowed from the eyes of Minaketana Ramadasa.
kabhu kona ange dekhi pulaka-kadamba
eka ange jadya tanra, ara ange kampa
kabhu--sometimes; kona--some; ange--in parts of the body; dekhi--I see; pulaka-kadamba--eruptions of ecstasy like kadamba flowers; eka ange--in one part of the body; jadya--stunned; tanra--his; ara ange--in another limb; kampa--trembling.
Sometimes there were eruptions of ecstasy like kadamba flowers on some parts of his body, and sometimes one limb would be stunned while another would be trembling.
nityananda bali' yabe karena hunkara
taha dekhi' lokera haya maha-camatkara
nityananda--the name Nityananda; bali'--saying; yabe--whenever; karena hunkara--makes a great sound; taha dekhi'--seeing that; lokera--of the people; haya--there is; maha-camatkara--great wonder and astonishment.
Whenever he shouted aloud the name Nityananda, the people around him were filled with great wonder and astonishment.
gunarnava misra name eka vipra arya
sri-murti-nikate tenho kare seva-karya
gunarnava misra--of Gunarnava Misra; name--by the name; eka--one; vipra--brahmana; arya--very respectable; sri-murti-nikate--by the side of the Deity; tenho--he; kare--does; seva-karya--activities in devotion.
One respectable brahmana named Sri Gunarnava Misra was serving the Deity.
angane asiya tenho na kaila sambhasa
taha dekhi' kruddha hana bale ramadasa
angane--to the courtyard; asiya--coming; tenho--he; na--not; kaila--did; sambhasa--address; taha dekhi'--seeing this; kruddha hana--becoming angry; bale--says; rama-dasa--Sri Ramadasa.
When Minaketana was seated in the yard, this brahmana did not offer him respect. Seeing this, Sri Ramadasa became angry and spoke.
'ei ta' dvitiya suta romaharasana
baladeva dekhi' ye na kaila pratyudgama'
ei ta'--this; dvitiya--second; suta romaharasana--of the name Romaharsana-suta; baladeva dekhi'--seeing Lord Balarama; ye--who; na--not; kaila--did; pratyudgama--stand up.
"Here I find the second Romaharsana-suta, who did not stand to show honor when he saw Lord Balarama."
eta bali' nace gaya, karaye santosa
krsna-karya kare vipra----na karila rosa
eta bali'--saying this; nace--he dances; gaya--chants; karaye santosa--becomes satisfied; krsna-karya--the duties of Deity worship; kare--performs; vipra--the brahmana; na karila--did not become; rosa--angry.
After saying this, he danced and sang to his heart's content, but the brahmana did not become angry, for he was then serving Lord Krsna.
Minaketana Ramadasa was a great devotee of Lord Nityananda. When he entered the house of Krsnadasa Kaviraja, Gunarnava Misra, the priest who was worshiping the Deity installed in the house, did not receive him very well. A similar event occurred when Romaharsana-suta was speaking to the great assembly of sages at Naimisaranya. Lord Baladeva entered that great assembly, but since Romaharsana-suta was on the vyasasana, he did not get down to offer respect to Lord Baladeva. The behavior of Gunarnava Misra indicated that he had no great respect for Lord Nityananda, and this idea was not at all palatable to Minaketana Ramadasa. For this reason the mentality of Minaketana Ramadasa is never deprecated by devotees.
utsavante gela tinho kariya prasada
mora bhrata-sane tanra kichu haila vada
utsava-ante--after the festival; gela--went away; tinho--he; kariya prasada--showing mercy; mora--of me; bhrata-sane--with the brother; tanra--of him; kichu--some; haila--there was; vada--controversy.
At the end of the festival Minaketana Ramadasa went away, offering his blessings to everyone. At that time he had some controversy with my brother.
caitanya-prabhute--unto Lord Caitanya; tanra--his; su-drdha--fixed; visvasa--faith; nityananda-prati--unto Lord Nityananda; tanra--his; visvasa-abhasa--dim reflection of faith.
My brother had firm faith in Lord Caitanya but only a dim glimmer of faith in Lord Nityananda.
iha jani' ramadasera duhkha ha-ila mane
tabe ta' bhratare ami karinu bhartsane
iha--this; jani'--knowing; rama-dasera--of the saint Ramadasa; duhkha--unhappiness; ha-ila--there was; mane--in the mind; tabe--at that time; ta'--certainly; bhratare--to my brother; ami--I; karinu--did; bhartsane--chastisement.
Knowing this, Sri Ramadasa felt unhappy in his mind. I then rebuked my brother.
dui bhai eka-tanu----samana-prakasa
nityananda na mana, tomara habe sarva-nasa
dui bhai--two brothers; eka-tanu--one body; samana-prakasa--equal manifestation; nityananda--Lord Nityananda; na mane--you do not believe; tomara--your; habe--that will be; sarva-nasa--downfall.
"These two brothers," I told him, "are like one body; They are identical manifestations. If you do not believe in Lord Nityananda, you will fall down."
ekete visvasa, anye na kara sammana
"ardha-kukkuti-nyaya" tomara pramana
ekete visvasa--faith in one; anye--in the other; na--not; kara--do; sammana--respect; ardha-kukkuti-nyaya--the logic of accepting half of a hen; tomara--your; pramana--evidence.
"If you have faith in one but disrespect the other, your logic is like the logic of accepting half a hen."
kimva, donha na manina hao ta' pasanda
eke mani' are na mani,----ei-mata bhanda
kimva--otherwise; donha--both of Them; na--not; manina--accepting; hao--you become; ta'--certainly; pasanda--atheist; eke--one of Them; mani'--accepting; are--the other; na mani--not accepting; ei-mata--this kind of faith; bhanda--hypocrisy.
"It would be better to be an atheist by slighting both brothers than a hypocrite by believing in one and slighting the other."
kruddha haiya--being very angry; vamsi--the flute; bhangi'--breaking; cale--departs; rama-dasa--of the name Ramadasa; tat-kale--at that time; amara--my; bhratara--of the brother; haila--there was; sarva-nasa--downfall.
Thus Sri Ramadasa broke his flute in anger and went away, and at that time my brother fell down.
ei ta' kahila tanra sevaka-prabhava
ara eka kahi tanra dayara svabhava
ei ta'--thus; kahila--explained; tanra--of Him; sevaka-prabhava--the power of the servant; ara--other; eka--one; kahi--I say; tanra--His; dayara--of mercy; svabhava--characteristic.
I have thus described the power of the servants of Lord Nityananda. Now I shall describe another characteristic of His mercy.
bhaike bhartsinu muni, lana ei guna
sei ratre prabhu more dila darasana
bhaike--my brother; bhartsinu--chastised; muni--I; lana--taking; ei--this; guna--as a good quality; sei ratre--on that night; prabhu--my Lord; more--unto me; dila--gave; darasana--appearance.
That night Lord Nityananda appeared to me in a dream because of my good quality in chastising my brother.
naihati-nikate 'jhamatapura' name grama
tanha svapne dekha dila nityananda-rama
naihati-nikate--near the village Naihati; jhamatapura--Jhamatapura; name--by the name; grama--village; tanha--there; svapne--in a dream; dekha--appearance; dila--gave; nityananda-rama--Lord Nityananda Balarama.
In the village of Jhamatapura, which is near Naihati, Lord Nityananda appeared to me in a dream.
There is now a railway line to Jhamatapura. If one wants to go there, he can take a train on the Katwa railway line and go directly to the station known as Salara. From that station one can go directly to Jhamatapura.
dandavat haiya ami padinu payete
nija-pada-padma prabhu dila mora mathe
dandavat haiya--offering obeisances; ami--I; padinu--fell down; payete--at His lotus feet; nija-pada-padma--His own lotus feet; prabhu--the Lord; dila--placed; mora--my; mathe--on the head.
I fell at His feet, offering my obeisances, and He then placed His own lotus feet upon my head.
'utha', 'utha' bali' more bale bara bara
uthi' tanra rupa dekhi' hainu camatkara
utha utha--get up, get up; bali'--saying; more--unto me; bale--says; bara bara--again and again; uthi'--getting up; tanra--His; rupa dekhi'--seeing the beauty; hainu--became; camatkara--astonished.
"Arise! Get up!" He told me again and again. Upon rising, I was greatly astonished to see His beauty.
koti-candra--millions upon millions of moons; jini'--surpassing; mukha--face; ujjvala-varana--bright and brilliant; dadimba-bija--pomegranate seeds; sama--like; danta--teeth; tambula-carvana--chewing betel nut.
His face was more beautiful than millions upon millions of moons, and His teeth were like pomegranate seeds because of His chewing betel.
murcchita ha-iya--fainting; muni--I; padinu--fell; bhumite--on the ground; svapna-bhanga--breaking of the dream; haila--there was; dekhi--I saw; hanache--there was; prabhate--morning light.
I fainted and fell to the ground, my dream broke, and when I regained consciousness I saw that morning had come.
ki dekhinu ki suninu, kariye vicara
prabhu-ajna haila vrndavana yaibara
ki dekhinu--what did I see; ki suninu--what did I hear; kariye vicara--I began to consider; prabhu-ajna--the order of my Lord; haila--there was; vrndavana--to Vrndavana; yaibara--to go.
I thought about what I had seen and heard and concluded that the Lord had ordered me to proceed to Vrndavana at once.
sei ksane vrndavane karinu gamana
prabhura krpate sukhe ainu vrndavana
sei ksane--that very second; vrndavane--toward Vrndavana; karinu--I did; gamana--starting; prabhura krpate--by the mercy of Lord Nityananda; sukhe--in great happiness; ainu--arrived; vrndavana--at Vrndavana.
That very second I started for Vrndavana, and by His mercy I reached there in great happiness.
jaya jaya--all glories; nityananda--to Lord Nityananda; nityananda-rama--to Lord Balarama, who appeared as Nityananda; yanhara krpate--by whose mercy; painu--I got; vrndavana-dhama--shelter at Vrndavana.
All glory, all glory to Lord Nityananda Balarama, by whose mercy I have attained shelter in the transcendental abode of Vrndavana.
jaya jaya--all glories; nityananda--to Lord Nityananda; jaya krpa-maya--all glories to the most merciful Lord; yanha haite--from whom; painu--I got; rupa-sanatana-asraya--shelter at the lotus feet of Rupa Gosvami and Sanatana Gosvami.
All glory, all glory to the merciful Lord Nityananda, by whose mercy I have attained shelter at the lotus feet of Sri Rupa and Sri Sanatana.
yanha haite--from whom; painu--I got; raghunatha-maha-asaya--the shelter of Raghunatha dasa Gosvami; yanha haite--from whom; painu--I got; sri-svarupa-asraya--shelter at the feet of Svarupa Damodara Gosvami.
By His mercy I have attained the shelter of the great personality Sri Raghunatha dasa Gosvami, and by His mercy I have found the refuge of Sri Svarupa Damodara.
Anyone desiring to become expert in the service of Sri Sri Radha and Krsna should always aspire to be under the guidance of Svarupa Damodara Gosvami, Rupa Gosvami, Sanatana Gosvami and Raghunatha dasa Gosvami. To come under the protection of the Gosvamis, one must get the mercy and grace of Nityananda Prabhu. The author has tried to explain this fact in these two verses.
sanatana-krpaya--by the mercy of Sanatana Gosvami; painu--I got; bhaktira siddhanta--the conclusions of devotional service; sri-rupa-krpaya--by the mercy of Srila Rupa Gosvami; painu--I got; bhakti-rasa-pranta--the limit of the mellows of devotional service.
By the mercy of Sanatana Gosvami I have learned the final conclusions of devotional service, and by the grace of Sri Rupa Gosvami I have tasted the highest nectar of devotional service.
Sri Sanatana Gosvami Prabhu, the teacher of the science of devotional service, wrote several books, of which the Brhad-bhagavatamrta is very famous; anyone who wants to know about the subject matter of devotees, devotional service and Krsna must read this book. Sanatana Gosvami also wrote a special commentary on the Tenth Canto of Srimad-Bhagavatam known as the Dasama-tippani which is so excellent that by reading it one can understand very deeply the pastimes of Krsna in His exchanges of loving activities. Another famous book by Sanatana Gosvami is the Hari-bhakti-vilasa, which states the rules and regulations for all divisions of Vaisnavas, namely, Vaisnava householders, Vaisnava brahmacaris, Vaisnava vanaprasthas and Vaisnava sannyasis. This book was especially written, however, for Vaisnava householders. Srila Raghunatha dasa Gosvami has described Sanatana Gosvami in his prayer Vilapa-kusumanjali, verse six, where he has expressed his obligation to Sanatana Gosvami in the following words:
apayayan mam anabhipsum andham
krpambudhir yah para-duhkha-duhkhi
sanatanas tam prabhum asrayami
"I was unwilling to drink the nectar of devotional service possessed of renunciation, but Sanatana Gosvami, out of his causeless mercy, made me drink it, even though I was otherwise unable to do so. Therefore he is an ocean of mercy. He is very compassionate to fallen souls like me, and thus it is my duty to offer my respectful obeisances unto his lotus feet."
Krsnadasa Kaviraja Gosvami also, in the last section of Caitanya-caritamrta, specifically mentions the names of Rupa Gosvami, Sanatana Gosvami and Srila Jiva Gosvami and offers his respectful obeisances unto the lotus feet of these three spiritual masters, as well as Raghunatha dasa. Srila Raghunatha dasa Gosvami also accepted Sanatana Gosvami as the teacher of the science of devotional service. Srila Rupa Gosvami is described as the bhakti-rasacarya, or one who knows the essence of devotional service. His famous book Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu is the science of devotional service, and by reading this book one can understand the meaning of devotional service. Another of his famous books is Ujjvala-nilamani. In this book he elaborately explains the loving affairs and transcendental activities of Lord Krsna and Radharani.
jaya jaya--all glories to; nityananda--of Lord Nityananda; carana-aravinda--the lotus feet; yanha haite--from whom; painu--I got; sri-radha-govinda--the shelter of Sri Radha and Govinda.
All glory, all glory to the lotus feet of Lord Nityananda, by whose mercy I have attained Sri Radha-Govinda.
Srila Narottama dasa Thakura, who is famous for his poetic composition known as Prarthana, has lamented in one of his prayers, "When will Lord Nityananda be merciful upon me so that I will forget all material desires?" Srila Narottama dasa Thakura confirms that unless one is freed from material desires to satisfy the needs of the body and senses, one cannot understand the transcendental abode of Lord Krsna, Vrndavana. He also confirms that one cannot understand the loving affairs of Radha and Krsna without going through the direction of the six Gosvamis. In another verse Narottama dasa Thakura has stated that without the causeless mercy of Nityananda Prabhu, one cannot enter into the affairs of Radha and Krsna.
jagai madhai haite muni se papistha
purisera kita haite muni se laghistha
mo-papisthe--unto me, who am so sinful; anilena--He brought; sri-vrndavana--to Vrndavana; mo-hena--such as me; adhame--to the lowest of mankind; dila--delivered; sri-rupa-carana--the lotus feet of Rupa Gosvami.
Although I am sinful and I am the most fallen, He has conferred upon me the lotus feet of Sri Rupa Gosvami.
kahibara yogya nahe e-saba kathana
sri-radha--Srimati Radharani; lalita--Her personal associate named Lalita; sange--with; rasa-vilasa--enjoyment of the rasa dance; manmatha--of Cupid; manmatha-rupe--in the form of Cupid; yanhara--of whom; prakasa--manifestation.
He enjoys the rasa dance with Srimati Radharani, Sri Lalita and others. He manifests Himself as the Cupid of Cupids.
tasam avirabhuc chaurih
tasam--among them; avirabhut--appeared; saurih--Lord Krsna; smayamana--smiling; mukha-ambujah--lotus face; pita-ambara-dharah--dressed with yellow garments; sragvi--decorated with a flower garland; saksat--directly; manmatha--of Cupid; manmathah--Cupid.
"Wearing yellow garments and decorated with a flower garland, Lord Krsna, appearing among the gopis with His smiling lotus face, looked directly like the charmer of the heart of Cupid."
This is a quotation from Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.32.2).
sva-madhurye lokera mana kare akarsana
dui pase radha lalita karena sevana
sva-madhurye--in His own sweetness; lokera--of all people; mana--the minds; kare--does; akarsana--attracting; dui pase--on two sides; radha--Srimati Radharani; lalita--and Her associate Lalita; karena--do; sevana--service.
With Radha and Lalita serving Him on His two sides, He attracts the hearts of all by His own sweetness.
nityananda-daya more tanre dekhaila
sri-radha-madana-mohane prabhu kari' dila
nityananda-daya--the mercy of Lord Nityananda; more--unto me; tanre--Madanamohana; dekhaila--showed; sri-radha-madana-mohane--Radha-Madanamohana; prabhu kari' dila--gave as my Lord and master.
The mercy of Lord Nityananda showed me Sri Madanamohana and gave me Sri Madanamohana as my Lord and master.
mo-adhame dila sri-govinda darasana
kahibara katha nahe akathya-kathana
mo-adhame--to one as abominable as me; dila--delivered; sri-govinda darasana--the audience of Lord Sri Govinda; kahibara--to speak this; katha--words; nahe--there are not; akathya--unspeakable; kathana--narration.
He granted to one as low as me the sight of Lord Govinda. Words cannot describe this, nor is it fit to be disclosed.
sri-govinda vasiyachena vrajendra-nandana
madhurya prakasi' karena jagat mohana
vrndavane--at Vrndavana; yoga-pithe--at the principal temple; kalpa-taru-vane--in the forest of desire trees; ratna-mandapa--an altar made of gems; tahe--upon it; ratna-simha-asane--on the throne of gems; sri-govinda--Lord Govinda; vasiyachena--was sitting; vrajendra-nandana--the son of Nanda Maharaja; madhurya prakasi'--manifesting His sweetness; karena--does; jagat mohana--enchantment of the whole world.
On an altar made of gems in the principal temple of Vrndavana, amidst a forest of desire trees, Lord Govinda, the son of the King of Vraja, sits upon a throne of gems and manifests His full glory and sweetness, thus enchanting the entire world.
vama-parsve sri-radhika sakhi-gana-sange
rasadika-lila prabhu kare kata range
vama-parsve--on the left side; sri-radhika--Srimati Radharani; sakhi-gana-sange--with Her personal friends; rasa-adika-lila--pastimes like the rasa dance; prabhu--Lord Krsna; kare--performs; kata range--in many ways.
By His left side is Srimati Radharani and Her personal friends. With them Lord Govinda enjoys the rasa-lila and many other pastimes.
yanra dhyana nija-loke kare padmasana
astadasaksara-mantre kare upasana
yanra--of whom; dhyana--the meditation; nija-loke--in his own abode; kare--does; padma-asana--Lord Brahma; astadasa-aksara-mantre--by the hymn composed of eighteen letters; kare--does; upasana--worshiping.
Lord Brahma, sitting on his lotus seat in his own abode, always meditates on Him and worships Him with the mantra consisting of eighteen syllables.
In his own planet, Lord Brahma, with the inhabitants of that planet, worships the form of Lord Govinda, Krsna, by the mantra of eighteen syllables, klim krsnaya govindaya gopi-jana-vallabhaya svaha. Those who are initiated by a bona fide spiritual master and who chant the Gayatri mantra three times a day know this astadasaksara (eighteen-syllable) mantra. The inhabitants of Brahmaloka and the planets below Brahmaloka worship Lord Govinda by meditating with this mantra. There is no difference between meditating and chanting, but in the present age meditation is not possible on this planet. Therefore loud chanting of a mantra like the maha-mantra, Hare Krsna, with soft chanting of the astadasaksara, the mantra of eighteen syllables, is recommended.
Lord Brahma lives in the highest planetary system, known as Brahmaloka or Satyaloka. In every planet there is a predominating deity. As the predominating deity in Satyaloka is Lord Brahma, so in the heavenly planets Indra is the predominating deity, and on the sun, the sun-god, Vivasvan, is the predominating deity. The inhabitants and predominating deities of every planet are all recommended to worship Govinda either by meditation or by chanting.
caudda-bhuvane yanra sabe kare dhyana
vaikunthadi-pure yanra lila-guna gana
caudda-bhuvane--within the fourteen worlds; yanra--of whom; sabe--all; kare dhyana--perform meditation; vaikuntha-adi-pure--in the abodes of the Vaikuntha planets; yanra--of whom; lila-guna--attributes and pastimes; gana--chanting.
Everyone in the fourteen worlds meditates upon Him, and all the denizens of Vaikuntha sing of His qualities and pastimes.
yanra madhurite kare laksmi akarsana
rupa-gosani kariyachena se-rupa varnana
yanra--of whom; madhurite--by the sweetness; kare--does; laksmi--the goddess of fortune; akarsana--attraction; rupa-gosani--Srila Rupa Gosvami; kariyachena--has done; se--that; rupa--of the beauty; varnana--enunciation.
The goddess of fortune is attracted by His sweetness, which Srila Rupa Gosvami has described in this way:
Srila Rupa Gosvami, in his Laghu-bhagavatamrta, has quoted from the Padma Purana, where it is stated that Laksmidevi, the goddess of fortune, after seeing the attractive features of Lord Krsna, was attracted to Him, and to get the favor of Lord Krsna she engaged herself in meditation. When asked by Krsna why she engaged in meditation with austerity, Laksmidevi answered, "I want to be one of Your associates like the gopis in Vrndavana." Hearing this, Lord Sri Krsna replied that it was quite impossible. Laksmidevi then said that she wanted to remain just like a golden line on the chest of the Lord. The Lord granted the request, and since then Laksmi has always been situated on the chest of Lord Krsna as a golden line. The austerity and meditation of Laksmidevi are also mentioned in Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.16.36), where the Naga-patnis, the wives of the serpent Kaliya, in the course of their prayers to Krsna, said that the goddess of fortune, Laksmi, also wanted His association as a gopi and desired the dust of His lotus feet.
smeram--smiling; bhangi-traya-paricitam--bent in three places, namely the neck, waist and knees; saci-vistirna-drstim--with a broad sideways glance; vamsi--on the flute; nyasta--placed; adhara--lips; kisalayam--newly blossomed; ujjvalam--very bright; candrakena--by the moonshine; govinda-akhyam--named Lord Govinda; hari-tanum--the transcendental body of the Lord; itah--here; kesi-tirtha-upakanthe--on the bank of the Yamuna in the neighborhood of Kesighata; ma--do not; preksisthah--glance over; tava--your; yadi--if; sakhe--O dear friend; bandhu-sange--to worldly friends; asti--there is; rangah--attachment.
"My dear friend, if you are indeed attached to your worldly friends, do not look at the smiling face of Lord Govinda as He stands on the bank of the Yamuna at Kesighata. Casting sidelong glances, He places His flute to His lips, which seem like newly blossomed twigs. His transcendental body, bending in three places, appears very bright in the moonlight."
This is a verse quoted from the Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (1.2.239) in connection with practical devotional service. Generally people in their conditioned life engage in the pleasure of society, friendship and love. This so-called love is lust, not love. But people are satisfied with such a false understanding of love. Vidyapati, a great and learned poet of Mithila, has said that the pleasure derived from friendship, society and family life in the material world is like a drop of water, but our hearts desire pleasure like an ocean. Thus the heart is compared to a desert of material existence that requires the water of an ocean of pleasure to satisfy its dryness. If there is a drop of water in the desert, one may indeed say that it is water, but such a minute quantity of water has no value. Similarly, in this material world no one is satisfied in the dealings of society, friendship and love. Therefore if one wants to derive real pleasure within his heart, he must seek the lotus feet of Govinda. In this verse Rupa Gosvami indicates that if one wants to be satisfied in the pleasure of society, friendship and love, he need not seek shelter at the lotus feet of Govinda, for if one takes shelter under His lotus feet he will forget that minute quantity of so-called pleasure. One who is not satisfied with that so-called pleasure may seek the lotus feet of Govinda, who stands on the shore of the Yamuna at Kesitirtha, or Kesighata, in Vrndavana and attracts all the gopis to His transcendental loving service.
saksat vrajendra-suta ithe nahi ana
yeba ajne kare tanre pratima-hena jnana
saksat--directly; vrajendra-suta--the son of Nanda Maharaja; ithe--in this matter; nahi--there is not; ana--any exception; yeba--whatever; ajne--a foolish person; kare--does; tanre--unto Him; pratima-hena--as a statue; jnana--such a consideration.
Without a doubt He is directly the son of the King of Vraja. Only a fool considers Him a statue.
sei aparadhe tara nahika nistara
ghora narakete pade, ki baliba ara
sei aparadhe--by that offense; tara--his; nahika--there is not; nistara--deliverance; ghora--terrible; narakete--in a hellish condition; pade--falls down; ki baliba--what will I say; ara--more.
For that offense, he cannot be liberated. Rather, he will fall into a terrible hellish condition. What more should I say?
In his Bhakti-sandarbha Jiva Gosvami has stated that those who are actually very serious about devotional service do not differentiate between the form of the Lord made of clay, metal, stone or wood and the original form of the Lord. In the material world a person and his photograph, picture or statue are different. But the statue of Lord Krsna and Krsna Himself, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, are not different, because the Lord is absolute. What we call stone, wood and metal are energies of the Supreme Lord, and energies are never separate from the energetic. As we have several times explained, no one can separate the sunshine energy from the energetic sun. Therefore material energy may appear separate from the Lord, but transcendentally it is nondifferent from the Lord.
The Lord can appear anywhere and everywhere because His diverse energies are distributed everywhere like sunshine. We should therefore understand whatever we see to be the energy of the Supreme Lord and should not differentiate between the Lord and His arca form made from clay, metal, wood or paint. Even if one has not developed this consciousness, one should accept it theoretically from the instructions of the spiritual master and should worship the arca-murti, or form of the Lord in the temple, as nondifferent from the Lord.
The Padma Purana specifically mentions that anyone who thinks the form of the Lord in the temple to be made of wood, stone or metal is certainly in a hellish condition. Impersonalists are against the worship of the Lord's form in the temple, and there is even a group of people who pass as Hindus but condemn such worship. Their so-called acceptance of the Vedas has no meaning, for all the acaryas, even the impersonalist Sankaracarya, have recommended the worship of the transcendental form of the Lord. Impersonalists like Sankaracarya recommend the worship of five forms, known as pancopasana, which include Lord Visnu. Vaisnavas, however, worship the forms of Lord Visnu in His varied manifestations, such as Radha-Krsna, Laksmi-Narayana, Sita-Rama and Rukmini-Krsna. Mayavadis admit that worship of the Lord's form is required in the beginning, but they think that in the end everything is impersonal. Therefore, since they are ultimately against worship of the Lord's form, Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu has described them as offenders.
Srimad-Bhagavatam has condemned those who think the body to be the self as bhauma ijya-dhih. Bhauma means earth, and ijya-dhih means worshiper. There are two kinds of bhauma ijya-dhih: those who worship the land of their birth, such as nationalists, who make many sacrifices for the motherland, and those who condemn the worship of the form of the Lord. One should not worship the planet earth or land of his birth, nor should one condemn the form of the Lord, which is manifested in metal or wood for our facility. Material things are also the energy of the Supreme Lord.
hena ye govinda prabhu, painu yanha haite
tanhara carana-krpa ke pare varnite
hena--thus; ye govinda--this Lord Govinda; prabhu--master; painu--I got; yanha haite--from whom; tanhara--His; carana-krpa--mercy of the lotus feet; ke--who; pare--is able; varnite--to describe.
Therefore who can describe the mercy of the lotus feet of Him [Lord Nityananda] by whom I have attained the shelter of this Lord Govinda?
vrndavane--in Vrndavana; vaise--there are; yata--all; vaisnava-mandala--groups of devotees; krsna-nama-parayana--addicted to the name of Lord Krsna; parama-mangala--all-auspicious.
All the groups of Vaisnavas who live in Vrndavana are absorbed in chanting the all-auspicious name of Krsna.
radha-krsna-bhakti vine nahi jane anya
yanra--whose; prana-dhana--life and soul; nityananda-sri-caitanya--Lord Nityananda and Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; radha-krsna--to Krsna and Radharani; bhakti--devotional service; vine--except; nahi jane anya--do not know anything else.
Lord Caitanya and Lord Nityananda are their life and soul. They do not know anything but devotional service to Sri Sri Radha-Krsna.
se vaisnavera pada-renu, tara pada-chaya
adhamere dila prabhu-nityananda-daya
se vaisnavera--of all those Vaisnavas; pada-renu--the dust of the feet; tara--their; pada-chaya--the shade of the feet; adhamere--unto this fallen soul; dila--gave; prabhu-nityananda-daya--the mercy of Lord Nityananda Prabhu.
The dust and shade of the lotus feet of the Vaisnavas have been granted to this fallen soul by the mercy of Lord Nityananda.
'tanha sarva labhya haya'----prabhura vacana
sei sutra----ei tara kaila vivarana
tanha--at that place; sarva--everything; labhya--obtainable; haya--is; prabhura--of the Lord; vacana--the word; sei sutra--that synopsis; ei--this; tara--His; kaila vivarana--has been described.
Lord Nityananda said, "In Vrndavana all things are possible." Here I have explained His brief statement in detail.
se saba painu ami vrndavane aya
sei saba labhya ei prabhura krpaya
se saba--all this; painu--got; ami--I; vrndavane--to Vrndavana; aya--coming; sei saba--all this; labhya--obtainable; ei--this; prabhura krpaya--by the mercy of Lord Nityananda.
I have attained all this by coming to Vrndavana, and this was made possible by the mercy of Lord Nityananda.
All the inhabitants of Vrndavana are Vaisnavas. They are all-auspicious because somehow or other they always chant the holy name of Krsna. Even though some of them do not strictly follow the rules and regulations of devotional service, on the whole they are devotees of Krsna and chant His name directly or indirectly. Purposely or without purpose, even when they pass on the street they are fortunate enough to exchange greetings by saying the name of Radha or Krsna. Thus directly or indirectly they are auspicious.
The present city of Vrndavana has been established by the Gaudiya Vaisnavas since the six Gosvamis went there and directed the construction of their different temples. Of all the temples in Vrndavana, ninety percent belong to the Gaudiya Vaisnava sect, the followers of the teachings of Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu and Nityananda, and seven temples are very famous. The inhabitants of Vrndavana do not know anything but the worship of Radha and Krsna. In recent years some unscrupulous so-called priests known as caste gosvamis have introduced the worship of demigods privately, but no genuine and rigid Vaisnavas participate in this. Those who are serious about the Vaisnava method of devotional activities do not take part in such worship of demigods.
The Gaudiya Vaisnavas never differentiate between Radha-Krsna and Lord Caitanya. They say that since Lord Caitanya is the combined form of Radha-Krsna, He is not different from Radha and Krsna. But some misled people try to prove that they are greatly elevated by saying that they like to chant the holy name of Lord Gaura instead of the names Radha and Krsna. Thus they purposely differentiate between Lord Caitanya and Radha-Krsna. According to them, the system of nadiya-nagari, which they have recently invented in their fertile brains, is the worship of Gaura, Lord Caitanya, but they do not like to worship Radha and Krsna. They put forward the argument that since Lord Caitanya Himself appeared as Radha and Krsna combined, there is no necessity of worshiping Radha and Krsna. Such differentiation by so-called devotees of Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu is considered disruptive by pure devotees. Anyone who differentiates between Radha-Krsna and Gauranga is to be considered a plaything in the hands of maya.
There are others who are against the worship of Caitanya Mahaprabhu, thinking Him mundane. But any sect that differentiates between Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu and Radha-Krsna, either by worshiping Radha-Krsna as distinct from Lord Caitanya or by worshiping Lord Caitanya but not Radha-Krsna, is in the group of prakrta-sahajiyas.
Srila Krsnadasa Kaviraja Gosvami, the author of Caitanya-caritamrta, predicts in verses 225 and 226 that in the future those who manufacture imaginary methods of worship will gradually give up the worship of Radha-Krsna, and although they will call themselves devotees of Lord Caitanya, they will also give up the worship of Caitanya Mahaprabhu and fall down into material activities. For the real worshipers of Lord Caitanya, the ultimate goal of life is to worship Sri Sri Radha and Krsna.